Noun is the name of anything. eg name of a person (Ibrahim, Maryam), name of places (Kaduna, Kano),
name of animals (cat, lion) or things (bottle, book)
Noun suna ne na kowani abu, Misali sunan mutum (Ibrahim, Maryam),
sunan gurare (Kaduna, Kano), sunan dabbobi (Mage, zaki) ko kuma sunan abubuwa waɗanda basu da rai (kwalba, littafi)
Types of Nouns (Karkasuwar noun)
Proper noun and common noun (suna na asali da suna na gamayya)
Abstract noun (sunayen abubuwan da baza mu iya gani ko taɓawa ba) and concrete noun (sunayen abubuwan da zamu iya gani ko taɓawa)
Collective noun (sunayen abubuwa masu tarin yawa waɗanda suke a tattare guri duga)
Countable noun (sunayen abubuwan da zamu iya ƙirgawa) and uncountable noun (sunayen abubuwan da baza mu iya ƙirgawa ba)
Yanzu bari mu duba su ɗaya bayan ɗaya.
1. Proper Noun And Common Noun
Proper noun describes a specific name of a place, thing, person or an animal, while common noun can be define as
generic name of places,
persons, things or animals.
Proper noun (Suna na asali) yana yin nuni ne ga sunan gurare, abubuwa marasa rai ko kuma dabbobi.
Amma shi common noun yana yin nuni ne na gamayya (wato suna guda ɗaya wanda za'a iya amfani dashi domin siffanta abubuwa da yawa)
Proper noun should always begin with a capital letter, but common noun only begin with a capital letter if it appear
in the beginning of a sentence.
A bisa ƙa'ida ta nahawu, idan aka yi amfani da proper noun a cikin jimla to ana so ya kasance noun ɗin ya fara
ne da babban harafi, amma shi common noun zai fara ne kawai da babban harafi idan ya kasance an sanya shi ne a farkon jimla.
Wannan teburin na ƙasa yana nuna banbanci tsakanin common noun da proper noun
rat, goat, sheep
Shamsuddeen, Musa, Maryam
Kwankwaso, Kura, Ancau
Samsung, IPhone, Techno
Zaria, Porthacout, Birnin Kebbi
2. Abstract Noun And Concrete Noun
Abstract nouns denotes something with no physical existence, something we can't see
or touch, Example of Abstract nouns are:
Abstract noun sune sunayen abubuwan da basu da jikin da za'a iya taɓa su,
baza mu iya ganin su ba ko taɓa su. Misalin Abstract noun sune:
Beauty (kyawu), Peace (salama), fear (tsoro), anger (fushi),
happiness (farin ciki) da dai sauran su.
But concrete nouns are those things that we can see or touch because they have physical existence. Example of concrete nouns are:
Amma su concrete nouns sune abubuwan da zamu iya gani ko taɓawa. Misalan concrete nouns sune kamar haka:
Cars (motoci), Houses (gidaje), Human (mutum), books (littafai), Desk (kujeru) da dai sauran su
3. Collective Noun
Collective noun is a noun that describes a groups of people, animals or things.
Ana yin amfani da collective noun ne domin yin nuni ga mutane, dabbobi, ko abubuwa masu tarin yawa da suke
a tattare guri guda. Misalan collective noun sune kamar haka:
Team of football (ƙungiyar 'yan wasa), herd of cattle
(garke na tumakai), class (ajin karatu), army (runduna), choir (tawagar mawaƙa) da dai sauran su
4. Countable And Uncountable Nouns
1. Countable noun:
Countable noun can be describe as a noun which has singular and plural form.
Countable noun can be used with articles ("a" and "an), they can also be used with numbers.
Countable noun ya ginu ne da kalmomi
na jam'i da waɗanda bana jam'i ba. Don haka zamu iya cewa countable noun shine noun wanda yake ɗaukan tilo da kuma jam'i. Za a iya yin amfani da countable noun tare da haruffan "a" ko "an", sannan kuma za a iya yin amfani dashi tare da lambobi.
book (littafi), day (rana), shop (shago), car (mota), thing (abu).
Examples of Countable nouns in sentences
He owned two houses and a car. Ya mallaki gidaje biyu da kuma mota guda.
These books are mine. waɗannan littafan mallakina ne.
How many days left? kwanaki nawa suka rage?
Only few shops opened. shaguna 'yan kaɗan ne kawai suka buɗe.
What are the things you mentioned? Menene abubuwan daka ambato?
2. Uncountable noun:
Uncountable nouns are things that we can't count with numbers, they neither have
plural nor used with articles ("a" and "an). But still uncountable noun can be counted using some words like: a lot of, a piece of, a sum of,
Uncountable nouns sune sunayen abubuwan da ba za a iya yin amfani da lambobi a ƙirgasu ba, ba su da jam'i sannan
kuma ba a yin amfani dasu tare da kalmomin "a" da "an". Amma duk da haka, za a iya ƙirga uncountable noun ta hanyar yin amfani da
wasu kalmomi irin su a lot of, a piece of, a sum of, some, da dai sauransu.
Misalan kalmomin uncountable nouns waɗanda basu da
furniture (kayan ɗaki na katako), money (kuɗi), progress (mataki), information (bayanai)
Examples of uncountable nouns in sentences
I saw a piece of furniture in the room. na ga wasu
kayan ɗaki a cikin ɗakin.
The offensive has been stagnated since last month and they haven't made a lot of progress.
farmakin da ake kaiwa ya kakare tun watan jiya domin ba su wani samu cigaba sosai ba.
A sum of money. wasu 'yan kuɗaɗa.
Where can I get some information? a ina zan samu wasu 'yan bayanai?
Compound noun is a noun with more than one word combined as a
single noun. E.g housewife, mobilephone.
Compound noun shine noun daya ƙunshi kalma sama da ɗaya da aka haɗe guri guda
a matsayin kalma ɗaya.
How compound nouns are formed
Compound noun can be
formed by writing as single word (e.g. Mobilephone), with hyphen (e.g. make-up) or as separate words (e.g. Military police, sectery general)
There are no rules about when to write compound nouns as single word, hyphenated or as separate word. So you have to study them just
like irregular verb.
Za'a iya samar da compound noun ta hanyar rubutawa a
matsayin dunƙulalliyar kalma (misali mobilephone), haɗe da alamar hyphen (misali make-up) ko kuma a rarrabe (misali military police).
Babu wata ƙa'ida da ake bi gurin samar da compound noun a matsayin dunƙulalliyar kalma ɗaya, kalma mai haɗe da alamar hyphen,
ko kuma a rarrabe. Don haka akwai buƙatar ka koye su kamar yadda ake koyan irregular verb.
Examples of how to formed compound noun by word class
Pronouns are words we use in place of nouns as a substitution. For example, instead of saying "Ibrahim sold Ibrahim's
house that Ibrahim built in Abuja, we can use pronouns to substitute the two pronouns in the sentence. The correct sentence with substitution
of pronouns will be something like this. "Ibrahim sold his house that he built in Abuja.
There are differents types of pronouns as follow:
Pronouns kalmomi ne na wakilin suna da muke amfani dasu a maimakon suna domin su maye gurbin suna. Misali a maimakon mu ce "Ibrahim ya siyar da gidan Ibrahim wanda Ibrahim ya gina a Habuja" sai muyi amfani da wakilin suna domin ya maye gurbin sunan Ibrahim ɗin, a don haka sai mu ce "Ibrahim ya siyar da gidansa wanda ya gina a Habuja"
Akwai nau'uka daban daban na 'pronouns' kamar haka:
An interrogative pronouns is used for asking questions. We have five interrogative
pronouns in English: 'who', 'what', 'which', 'whom', 'whose'. 'Who' and 'whom' refer only to people; but the remaining can
be used to refer to objects or people.
Ana amfani da interrogatve pronouns ne gurin yin tambaya. kuma muna da
interrogative pronouns guda biyar ne a turanci kamar haka:
who, what, which, whom, da kuma 'whose'.
Ana yin amfani da 'who' da kuma 'whom' ne idan ana yin magana akan mutane kawai, amma ragowan za'a iya yin amfani dasu koda ana yin
magana ne akan abubuwa mara rai.
In some cases, interrogative pronouns can have suffix '-ever' while some few can have '-soever' E.g
A wasu lokutan akan sanyawa interrogative pronounssuffix na "-ever" wasu
ƙalilan kuma ana sanya musu '-soever' misali:
If word have one syllable; add "-er" for the comparative and '-est' for the superlative. E.g
Idan ya kasance kalma tana da gaɓa guda ɗaya ne kawai, zaku sanya "-er" ne a ƙarkenta domin mayar da ita comparative, sannan ku sanya
"-est" domin mayar da ita superlative. Misali
If adjective ends in "-e", its comparative can be found by adding "y" and by adding "st" for superlative.
Idan harafin ƙarke na adjective ya kasance "-e" ne, to za'a samar da comparative ɗin shi ta hanyar ƙara harafin 'r', sannan kuma
a ƙara haruffan 'st' domin samar da superlative ɗin shi"
If an adjective ends in a vowel and a consonant; we double the consonant. E.g
Idan ya kasance adjective ya ƙare da harafi ne, amma kuma wasali ne a bayan harafin, to anan zamu ruɓanya harafin ne. Misali:
But when adjective end in a consonant and '-y', we change '-y' to '-i' and add 'er' for comparative, or '-t' for
Amma idan kalmar adjective ta ƙare da harafi, kuma sannan 'y' shine a gaban harafin; to anan zamu canza '-y' ya koma 'i' sannan daga bisani
mu sanya "-er" domin samar da comparative ko kuma mu sanya "est" domin samar da superlative. Misali:
'More' and 'most' can be use to make comparative and superlative for most two syllable adjectives and for all
adjectives with three or more syllables. eg.
Ana amfani da 'more' da kuma 'most' domin yin comparative da kuma superlative na yawancin kalmomin da suke da gaɓoɓi biyu, uku
ko fiye. Misali
But some adjectives have irregular comparatives and superlatives.
Amma waɗansu adjectives
ɗin yanayin yanda ake comparative da kuma superlative nasu ya banbanta. Misali
1. Main verb
Main verbs have meanings related to what actually happened.
Main verbs kalmomi ne na aiki a cikin jimla dake nuna aikin da wani ya aikata.
Examples of main verbs in sentence
He works in cement factory. yana yin aiki a
ma'aikatar sarrafa siminti.
The company sent the money to her. Kamfanin ya aika mata kuɗin.
the bottle inside the fridge. Awwal ya sanya kwalbar a cikin firji.
Most people eat three times a day. yawancin
mutane suna cin abinci sau uku a rana.
I bought a house this year. na sayi gida a wannan shekarar.
Her children sell electronics in the market. yaranta suna siyar da kayan latironi a kasuwar.
Average Hausa speak at least two languages. kusan kowane Bahaushe zaka same shi yana jin a ƙalla yare biyu.
Some students only read in the night. wasu ɗalibai da dare ne kawai suke yin karatu.
We walked passed the street. mun wuce ta hanyar.
They left their bags behind. sun tafi sun bar
2. Linking Verb
Linking verb is type of verb that connects subjects with words in a sentence. Linking verb doesn't show action
but just describe the condition of the subject or how it looks. For example: Zainab is hungry. In this example the word "is"
shows the condition of Zainab and therefore "is" is the linking verb in this example because it explains the state of the subject "Zainab"
Linking verbs sune verb na aikatau amma kuma basa nuna aikin daya faru sai dai su fayyace yanayi tare da halin da mutumin daya
aikata aiki yake a ciki. Misali: Zainab is hungry. ma'ana Zainab tana jin yunwa. A wannan misalin kalmar "is" tana nuna halin
da Zainab take ciki, a don haka kalmar "is" ita ce linking verb a wannan misalin.
Some linking verbs are
Waɗannan sune waɗansu daga cikin linking verb
am, is, are, was, were, being, been, appear, feel, look, seem, be,
get, remain, sound, smell, taste, become
Example of linking verbs in sentence. (yanda ake amfani da 'linking verbs' a
Someone appeared at the door's entrance. wani ya bayyana a ƙofar shigowa.
certainly aware. Babu shakka yana ankare.
This hat feels good. wannan hular tana da kyau.
outside. Hasan ya kasance a waje.
This orange smells bad. wannan lemun yana wari.
He gets angry when
someone disrespect him. yana fusata idan wani ya raina shi.
She stays at home every Friday. tana zama a gida duk ranar
3. Auxiliary Verb
Auxiliary verb are used to help the main verbs, and that's why is also called "helping verb"
There are three well known auxiliary verbs in English: be, do, and have.
Ana yin amfani da auxiliary verb ne domin ƙarfafa main
verb, hakan yasa ake kiran auxiliary verb da suna helping verb. Auxiliary verb guda uku ne waɗanda aka fi sani, wato
"be, do, da kuma "have".
(a) Auxiliary be
'Auxiliary be' is used to indicate the continuous and the passive.
Ana amfani da Auxiliary na be ne domin nuna aikin
dake gudana da kuma wada aka kammala.
Example of Auxiliary 'be' in sentence.
I am waiting for my wife
to come back. ina jiran matata ta dawo.
Her android phone was stolen in her room. an sace wayarta ta android a cikin
(b) Auxiliary do
Auxiliary 'do' is used in interrogative sentence, negative sentence or to make emphatic.
Ana yin amfani da Auxiliary do ne gurin tambaya, ko a jimlar da take musanta magana ko kuma gurin ƙarfafa magana.
Auxiliary do in sentence
Does she live in Kano? shin tana rayuwa ne a Kano?
know his name. basu san sunansa ba.
I do like your dressing. ina son irin sanya kayanka.
(c) Auxiliary have
Auxiliary have is used to indicate the perfect.
Ana yin amfani da auxiliary have ne domin nuna cewa aiki ya kammala.
Example of 'auxiliary have' in sentence.
I have lost my wallet. na ɓatar da lalitata
She had left her car outside. ta bar motarta
4. Modal Verb
Modal verbs are used with other verbs to express ability, obligation, possibility
Transitive verb: A transitive verb is a verb that go with direct object, a direct object is a noun,
phrase or pronoun that refers to the person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb. Intransitive verb in the other hand does not
go with direct object.
Transitive verb wani verb ne da a koda yaushe yake zuwa tare da mutum ko wani abu da aikin da ake aikatawa ya shafa. Amma shi
intransitive verb baya buƙatar mutum ko wani abu da aikin da ake aikatawa ya shafa.
Maryam drives a car. Maryam tana tuƙa mota
Maryam drives. Maryam tana yin tuƙi
Most Hausa eat rice once in a while. yawancin Hausawa suna cin shinkafa daga lokaci zuwa lokaci.
Most Hausa eat once in
a while. yawancin Hausawa suna cin abinci daga lokaci zuwa lokaci.
I copied the notes from the board. na kwafi
rubutun ne daga jikin allo.
I copied from the board. na kwafa daga kan allo.
Close the door, I saw someone coming towards. kulle ƙofar na ga wani yana tahowa.
Most banks in Zaria close at 4:00 p.m.
yawancin bankuna a Zariya suna rufewa ne da ƙarfe huɗu.
Musa tried to stop the woman from leaving. Musa yayi ƙoƙarin hana matar tafiya.
When the rain stopped the children went
back to home. lokacin da ruwan ya ɗauke sai yaran suka koma gida.
Musa set a chair next to the bed. Musa ya aje kujera kusa da gado.
The sun set and a red glow filled the sky. rana
ta faɗa kuma wani jan abu mai ƙyalli ya mamaye sararin sama.
Phrasal verbs is a verb that formed from main verb together with an adverb or preposition or both.
Phrasal verbs kalmomi ne na 'verb' waɗanda ake samar dasu daga cikin 'main verb' kuma suna samuwa ne idan aka haɗa "main verb" da kuma
"adverb" ko "preposition" koma duka.
Misalan phrasal verbs: call up, find out, hand in, make up, put off, turn on, write up, hand over.
Example of phrasal verbs in sentence. Misalan 'phrasal verbs' a cikin jimla.
Guys are often looked down
on me. samari suna yawan yi mini kallon banza.
Crisis broke out in southern Kaduna. rikici ya ɓarke a
kudancin jihar Kaduna.
Don't put me off, I'm trying to concentrate. kada ka ɗauke min hankali, ina ƙoƙarin yanke
The report spelled out the need for more troops. rahoton ya bankaɗo buƙatar ƙarin dakaru.
Most phrasal verbs cannot be interpret literally because their meaning differ from the meaning of common words,
the phrasal verbs "broke out" does not means breaking something out; it means to begin something suddenly.
Galibi yanda ake fassara phrasal verbs ya banbanta da yanda ake rubuta su. Alal misali kalmar
"broke out" baza ka fassara ta da "karyowa wace" ba (duk kuwa da cewa abun da aka rubuta ke nan) a,a, kalmar tana nufin
fara aukuwar wani lamari
Adverbs are words that modify and describe other parts of speech such as verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. There are different types of adverbs as follows.
Adverbs kalmomi ne da suke sauya wasu nau'ukan kalmomin kamar kalmomi na aikatau, siffatau, koma dai wasu kalmomin na bayanau. Akwai nau'uka dabam-dabam na bayanau kamar haka.
Types of adverbs (nau'ukan adverb)
1. Adverb of time/frequency
This tells us when, how or how often an action occurs.
Adverb of time/frequency. yana labarta mana lokacin da wani aiki ya faru, ta yaya ya faru ko kuma daga wani lokaci zuwa wani lokaci yake faruwa.
I went to my grandparent house yesterday. na je gidan kakanni na jiya.
I've intention to visit my grandparent
now. ina da niyyan ziyartar kakanni na yanzu.
I visit the website everyday. ina ziyartar shafin kowace rana.
The family bought a house last week. iyalan sun sayi gida satin daya gabata.
I'm going to Kano next month. zan je Kano wata mai zuwa.
They will come back tomorrow. zasu dawo gobe.
He will be taken to court soon. za a kai shi kotu bada jimawa ba.
Nobody welcome him when he came back late. babu wanda ya tarbe shi lokacin daya dawo a makare.
The adverb of time in the above examples are: yesterday, now, everyday, last week, next month, tomorrow, soon, late.
2. Adverb of place/direction
It expresses where an action take place. E.g.
Adverb of place/direction yana fayyace mana gurin da wani aiki ya faru. Misali:
His wife came here. matarshi ta zo nan.
They live nearby. a nan kusa suke da zama.
He hide under the table. ya ɓoye a ƙarƙashin teburin.
A lot of Fulani are nomadic herders that can be found everywhere. Fulani masu yawa makiyaya ne da suke canza muhalli waɗanda za a iya samunsu a ko ina.
Look around whether you can find someone. ka duba kewayen gurin ko zaka samu wani.
He left his car inside. ya bar motarsa a ciki.
The adverb of place in the above examples are: here, nearby, under, everywhere, around, inside.
3. Adverb of manner
It expresses how action happen.
Adverb of manner yana nuna
yanayin yadda wani aiki yake faruwa. Misali:
He understands quickly. yana fahimta cikin sauri.
They protested peacefully. sun yin zanga-zangar cikin salama.
You can't work and watch television simultaneously. ba zai yiwu kana yin aiki kuma kana kallon talabijin duk a lokaci guda.
They are happily to sign the contract. suna masu farin cikin sanya hannu kan kwantiragin.
Adverbs of manner in the above examples are: quickly, peacefully, simultaneously, happily.
4. Adverb of comparison
This compares two or three things.
Ana amfani da adverb of comparison ne domin ne domin nuna banbancin dake tsakanin abubuwa. Domin ƙarin bayani sai a duba gurin "adjective
Prepositions are words that relate words or
elements in a
sentence to show the relationship words have with each other. The most common prepositions are:
"Prepositions" yana nuna alaƙa ne tsakanin kalmomi ko wasu abubuwa. Prepositions waɗanda suka fi shahara sune kamar haka:
Example of preposition in sentence. misalan preposition a cikin jimla
The first time i saw Amina she was walking down the road. lokaci na farko dana ga Amina ta kasance tana gangarawa ƙasan
I found him in the hospital opposite the mosque. na same shi a cikin asibitin dake daura da masallacin.
It may be difficult to stay calm during a war. zai wahala hankalinka ya iya kwanciya lokacin yaƙi.
This war was the
worst since the 1960s. wannan yaƙin shine mafi muni tin wanda aka yi a shekara ta 1960s.
Although most prepositions are single words, but some multiple words can also work as preposition.
Yawancin prepositions kalmomi ne na tilo, amma waɗansu tagwayen kalmomi dama jerin kalmomi suna yin aiki tamkar prepositions. Misali:
She was unable to complete her study because of lack of fund. ta kasa kammala karatunta saboda rashin kuɗi.
Maryam will stay in the classroom in place of me. Maryam zata tsaya a ajin karatun a waje na.
In addition to
building a house, he decided to buy new car. baya ga gina wani gida, ya yanke shawarar siyan sabuwar mota.
The girl always get
nervous when she was speaking in front of an audience. yarinyar a koda yaushe tana fama da rawan jiki idan tana magana a gaban masu
Some common prepositions that consist of groups of words are:
Wasu daga cikin prepositions da suka
ƙunshi kalmomi masu tarin yawa sune kamar haka:
ahead of, except for, instead of, owing to, apart from, in addition to, near to, such as, as for, in front of, on account of, thanks to, as well
as, in place of, on top of, up to, because of, in spite of, out of, due to, inside of, outside of
Conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences. E.g.
Conjunction yana daga cikin part of speech da ake amfani dashi gurin haɗe kalmomi, ko jimloli tare. Misalin conjunction sune kamar haka:
but, so, and, or, yet, for, how, although, because.
Types of conjunction (nau'ukan mahaɗin kalma)
There are three major types of conjunctions in English.
Muna da conjunction iri uku ne waɗanda aka fi sani a turanci kamar haka:
These conjunctions joins words, phrases or clauses that have similar grammatical structure.
The most common coordinating conjunctions are: and, nor, but, yet, so, and "or".
Coordinating conjunctions ya kasance yana haɗe kalmomi, phrases ko clause da yanayin tsarin nahawunsu ya kasance iri ɗaya
ne. Coordinating conjunctions waɗanda suka fi shahara sune kamar haka: "and" "or" da kuma "but"
Read the following example, the sections that we underlined are the words, phrases and clauses joined by the
coordinating conjunction. While the bolded words are the coordinating conjunction
A karanta misalan dake ƙasa, sashin da muka ja layi a ƙasa sashi ne na kalmomi, phrases da kuma clauses waɗanda coordinating
conjunction suka haɗe su. Sannan kuma kalmomin da muka kaurara su sune coordinating conjunction. ɗin.
He bought an orangeanda pen. (two word) ya sayo lemu da kuma alƙalami.
He remember to come with his
bagandpen. (two words) ya tuna sannan ya zo da jakarsa da kuma alƙalamin shi.
You can browse the internet
on mobile phoneoron laptop computer. (two phrases) Zaka iya shiga yanar gizo ta wayar hannu ko na'urar laptop.
(a wannan jimlar 'phrase' guda biyu ne aka haɗe)
Nafisat always stay in the libraryorin the classroom. (two phrases) Nafisat a koda yaushe tana zama ne a ɗakin
karatu ko ajin karatu ('phrases' biyu ne aka haɗe su a wannan jimlar ta hanyar amfani da "or")
I waited for herbutshe didn't come. (two clauses) na jira ta amma bata zo ba ('clauses' guda biyu ne aka haɗe a cikin wannan jimlar ta hanyar amfani
She asked him for assistancebuthe didn't help her. (two clauses) ta buƙace shi daya taimake ta,
amma bai taimake ta ba. ('clauses' biyu ne aka haɗe a cikin wannan jimlar ta hanyar amfani da 'but')
As you observe in the above examples, the words, phrases, sentences and clauses that joined by coordinating
conjunctions are of similar grammatical pattern.
Idan kun lura a cikin misalan dake sama, kalmomi, phrases, jimloli da kuma clauses waɗanda coordinating conjunctions
suka haɗe, zaku ga cewa yanayin tsarin nahawun su iri ɗaya ne.
We haven't stay at home nor have we goto work.
I asked my son to stay at home, yet he managed to go out in my absence.
We don't like mosquito in our room, so we sleep under mosquito net.
Subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate clause to a main clause. The most common subordinating conjunctions are:
Aikin da subordinating conjunctions yake yi shine haɗe subordinating clause. Subordinating conjunctions da aka fi sani
sune kamar haka:
after, although, as, before, if, since, that, until, when, whereas, while, once, so, as soon as, provided that.
Aikin da subordinating conjunctions yake yi shine haɗe subordinating clause da kuma main clause tare.
Subordinating conjunctions da aka fi sani sune kamar haka:
after, although, as, before, if, since, that, until, when, whereas, while, once, so, as soon as, provided that.
Difference between main clause and subordinate clause
A main clause are words that have subject and verb and therefore it can work alone as a complete
sentence on the basis
that it have complete meaning. Example: He graduated from university.
While subordinate clause cannot work alone as a sentence because it lack complete meaning; it relies on main clause to give complete meaning.
Example: After four years of study.
The above sentence is not a complete sentence because it need additional information
to give meaning. That is the reason why main clause is call independent clause and subordinate clause is call dependent clause.
But if we combine the main clause and subordinate clause together we will get complete sentence as follow:
He graduated from university after four years of study.
you can see that we have complete sentence now that we combined
the two clauses
together. The subordinating conjunction in this example is after
Bambanci Tsakanin main clause da kuma subordinate clause
Main clause zai iya yin aiki shi kaɗai a cikin jimla saboda yana bada cikakkiyar ma'ana. Misali: He graduated from university.
Amma subordinate clause bazai iya yin aiki shi kaɗai ba a cikin jimla saboda ba zai bada cikakkiyar ma'ana ba.
Yana dogara ne ga main clause domin bayar da cikakkiyar ma'ana. Misali: After four years of study. Bayan yin karatu na
huɗu. kunga wannan jimlar ba cikakkiyar jimla bace domin tana buƙatar ƙarin bayani kafin ta bada ma'ana. Hakanne yasa ake kiran
main clause da jimla mai zaman kanta, kuma ake kiran subordinate clause da jimla mai dogaro da wani abu.
Amma idan muka haɗe independent
clause da kuma dependent clause ɗin tare zamu samu jimla mai ma'ana kamar haka: He graduated from university after four
study. Ya kammala karatun jami'a bayan yin karatu na tsawon shekaru huɗu. Kunga wannan jimlar ta bada cikakkiyar ma'ana.
A wannan misalin
kalmar after itace subordinating conjunction.
He uses eyeglass for reading because his eyesight deteriorated.
He know the situation doesn't concern him, hence he doesn't involved.
As he approached the town, he saw five people in front of the house.
I can't do without internet, as long as I have money.
I will definitely tell him the story once I saw him.
After we had talked on the phone I wrote down what we had decided.
Everyone enjoyed the fishing trip although no one caught any fish.