Parts of speech is a term use by grammarians to describe the names given to the form of every English word in expression.
Parts of speech wani laƙabi ne da masana nahawu suke amfani dashi domin siffanta irin sunayen da ake laƙabawa kalmomi a cikin magana.
Parts of speech sune kamar haka
Noun is the name of anything. eg name of a person (Ibrahim, Maryam), name of places (Kaduna, Kano), name of animals (cat, lion) or things (bottle, book)
Noun suna ne na kowani abu, Misali sunan mutum (Ibrahim, Maryam), sunan gurare (Kaduna, Kano), sunan dabbobi (Mage, zaki) ko kuma sunan abubuwa waɗanda basu da rai (kwalba, littafi)
Types of Nouns (Karkasuwar noun)
Proper noun and common noun (suna na asali da suna na gamayya)
Abstract noun (sunayen abubuwan da baza mu iya gani ko taɓawa ba) and concrete noun (sunayen abubuwan da zamu iya gani ko taɓawa)
Collective noun (sunayen abubuwa masu tarin yawa waɗanda suke a tattare guri duga)
Countable noun (sunayen abubuwan da zamu iya ƙirgawa) and uncountable noun (sunayen abubuwan da baza mu iya ƙirgawa ba)
Yanzu bari mu duba su ɗaya bayan ɗaya.
1. PROPER NOUN AND COMMON NOUN
Proper noun describes a place, thing, person or an animal by its specific name, while common noun merely describe the generic name of places, persons, things or animals.
Proper noun (Suna na asali) yana yin nuni ne ga sunan gurare, abubuwa marasa rai ko kuma dabbobi. Amma shi common noun yana yin nuni ne na gamayya (wato suna guda ɗaya wanda za'a iya anfani dashi domin siffanta abubuwa da yawa)
Grammatically, if a proper noun is used in a sentence, the noun should begin with a capital letter, but common noun should only begin with a capital letter if it appear in the beginning of a sentence.
A bisa ƙa'ida ta nahawu, idan aka yi amfani da proper noun a cikin jimla to ana so ya kasance noun ɗin ya fara ne da babban harafi, amma shi common noun zai fara ne kawai da babban harafi idan ya kasance an sanya shi ne a farkon jimla.
Wannan teburin na ƙasa yana nuna banbanci tsakanin common noun da proper noun
rat, goat, sheep
Shamsuddeen, Musa, Maryam
Kwankwaso, Kura, Ancau
Samsung, IPhone, Techno
Zaria, Porthacout, Birnin Kebbi
2. ABSTRACT NOUN AND CONCRETE NOUN
Abstract nouns have no physical existence, we can't see or touch them, Example of Abstract nouns are:
Abstract noun sune sunayen abubuwan da basu da jikin da za'a iya taɓa su, baza mu iya ganin su ba ko taɓa su. Misalin Abstract noun sune:
Beauty (kyawu), Peace (salama), fear (tsoro), anger (fushi), happiness (farin ciki) da dai sauran su.
But concrete nouns are those things that we can see or touch. Example of concrete nouns are:
Amma su concrete nouns sune abubuwan da zamu iya gani ko taɓawa. Misalan concrete nouns sune kamar haka:
Cars (motoci), Houses (gidaje), Human (mutum), books (littafai), Desk (kujeru) da dai sauran su
3. COLLECTIVE NOUN
Collective noun is generally describe a groups of people, animals or things. Examples are:
Ana yin anfani da collective noun ne domin yin nuni ga mutane, dabbobi, ko abubuwa masu tarin yawa da suke a tattare guri guda. Misalan collective noun sune kamar haka:
Team of football (ƙungiyar 'yan wasa), herd of cattle (garke na tumakai), class (ajin karatu), army (runduna), choir (tawagar mawaƙa) da dai sauran su
4. COUNTABLE NOUN AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUN
1. Countable noun: is base on singularity and plurality. So we can describe it as one (singular) and more than one (plural).
Countable noun ya ginu ne da kalmomi na jam'i da waɗanda bana jam'i ba. Don haka zamu iya cewa 'countable noun' zai iya kasancewa abu guda ɗaya ko kuma abu fiye da ɗaya. Misalan su sune kamar haka:
Cars (motoci), books (littafai), table (teburi) da dai sauransu.
Some nouns can be both countable and uncountable. Observe the underlined words in the following examples
Ku lura da kalmomin da aka ja layi a ƙasansu a cikin misalan nan dake ƙasa.
Nigeria face some bad experiences in the preceding year. (countable)
Computer programming requires a lot of experience. (uncountable)
Nigeria went through several difficulties last year (countable)
He encountered much difficulties solving the problem (uncountable)
The talks took place in government house Kaduna (uncountable)
Idle talk is sinful (uncountable)
2. Uncountable noun: Uncountable noun presents a picture of mass, substance or concept without well defined limits as a result of which they can't be counted. but still uncountable noun can be countable by using some words like 'little, lots, any, many, plenty or much'
Uncountable noun yana yin nuni ne ga abubuwa masu tarin yawa da suke a tattare guri duga (=dami), haka kuma yana nuna yanayin ingancin abun da bashi da iyaka, wanda hakan yasa baza a iya irgashi ba. Amma duk da haka, uncountable noun zai iya zama wanda za'a iya ƙirgashi idan aka yi amfani da wasu kalmomi irin su "little, lots, some, any, many, plenty, da kuma much"
Pronouns are words we use in place of nouns. There are differents types of pronouns as follows:
Pronouns kalmomi ne da muke anfani dasu a maimakon 'noun'. Akwai nau'uka daban daban na 'pronouns' kamar haka:
1. PERSONAL PRONOUN
This is made of three persons (first person, e.g. i, me, we, us), second person (you, them). Third person (he, she, they)
Ana anfani da personal pronoun ne domin yin nuni ga mutane uku.
Wakilin suna dake siffanta mutumin ko mutanen da suke yin magana (misali: i, me, we, us)
Wakilin suna da yake siffanta mutumin ko mutanen da ake yi musu magana (misali: you)
Wakilin suna da yake siffanta mutumin ko mutanen da ake magana a kansu (misali: he, she, it, them, they)
"He" or "him" are use to refer to men, while "she" or "her" are use to refer to women. But if we're not sure whether we're talking about a man or a woman we use 'they' or 'them'. E.g.
Ana anfani da 'he' ko 'him' ne domin siffanta maza, sannan kuma ana anfani da 'she' ko 'her' domin siffanta mata. misali:
This is my grandfather, great him. wannan shine kaka na, ki gaishe shi.
The woman that you saw in the house is my mother, have you great her? matar da kika gani a gidan mamata ce, shin kin gaishe ta?
Ask them to keep calm. ka buƙace su dasu natsu.
You could ask for help they might help you. zaka iya neman taimako, zasu taimaka maka.
2. POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
Possessive pronouns yana nuna alaman mallaka ne, misali:
mine (nawa), ours (namu), yours (naku), hers (nata), theirs (nasu), his (nashi), its (nasu)
3. RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Relative pronouns sune kamar haka: who, whomever, whom, whoever, whose, which da kuma 'that'
4. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
Demonstrative pronouns show nearness or distance, e.g that, these, those, this.
Ana anfani da demonstrative pronouns ne domin yin nuni ga abun da yake kusa ko wanda yake nesa. misali:
that (wancan), these (waɗancan), those (waɗancan), this (wannan)
5. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
An interrogative pronouns is used for asking questions. We have five interrogative pronouns in English: 'who', 'what', 'which', 'whom', 'whose'. 'who' and 'whom' refer only to people; but the remaining can be used to refer to objects or people.
Ana anfani da interrogatve pronouns ne gurin yin tambaya. kuma muna da interrogative pronouns guda biyar ne a turanci kamar haka:
who, what, which, whom, da kuma 'whose'.
Ana yin anfani da 'who' da kuma 'whom' ne idan ana yin magana akan mutane kawai, amma ragowan za'a iya yin anfani dasu koda ana yin magana ne akan abubuwa mara rai.
In some cases, interrogative pronouns can have suffix '-ever' while some few can have '-soever' E.g
A wasu lokutan akan sanyawa interrogative pronounssuffix na "-ever" wasu ƙalilan kuma ana sanya musu '-soever' misali:
Example of interrogative pronouns in a sentence. (misalan interrogative pronouns a cikin jimla)
What do you bought for your birthday? me ka siyo domin ranar maulidin ka?
Which phone do you thinks better for women? wace waya ce kake ganin tafi dacewa da mata?
Who do you like to win the game? waye kake so ya lashe wasan?
To whom are you speaking? wa kake yiwa magana?
Whose books are those? waɗanne littafai ne waɗannan?
6. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
Reflexive pronoun sune kamar haka:
himself, itself, herself
Reflexive pronouns are words ending in "-self" or "-selves". They usually used when the subject and the objects of the sentence are the same.
Reflexive pronouns sune kalmomi da suke ƙarewa da "-self" ko "-selves", galibi ana anfani dasu ne idan mutumin daya aikata aiki da kuma wanda aikin ya shafa duk mutum ɗaya ne
Example of reflexive pronouns in sentences. (misalan 'reflexive pronouns' a cikin jimla)
I washed the bike myself. na wanke keken da kaina.
I can't drive you today, you should drive yourself. bazan tuƙa ka ba yau, ya kamata ka tuƙa kanka.
He don't like to bother his wife so he cook the food himself. baya so ya damu matarshi, don haka sai ya dafa abincin da kanshi.
Jamila write the novel herself because she can't afford others to write for her. Jamila tana rubuta labarin da kanta saboda baza ta iya yin hayan wasu su rubuta mata ba.
Mobile phone can't make a call itself. wayar salula baza ta iya yin kira da kanta ba
No need to hire professionals, we can fix the problems ourselves. babu buƙatar a ɗauko hayan ƙwararru, zamu iya gyara matsalar da kanmu.
You are old enough to go school by yourselves. kun yi girman da zaku je makaranta da kanku.
The couple saved money by doing some activities themselves. ma'auratan sun yi tattalin kuɗi ta hanyar yin wasu aikace aikace da kansu.
7. INDEFINITE PRONOUN
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun which you use to refer in general way to a person or thing. Indefinite pronouns are always singular, thus the pronouns or verbs used to refer to them should also be singular
Indefinite pronouns wani wakilin suna ne da ake anfani dashi gurin siffanta kowani irin mutum ko abu mara rai. A koda yaushe indefinite pronouns tilo ne, don haka kalmomin 'pronoun' ko 'verb' da ake anfani dasu gurin siffanta su suma dole su kasance tilo ne.
Indefinite pronouns sune kamar haka:
Any, anybody, anyone, either, neither, nobody, no, someone, some, every, all, both, each, many, much."
Example of indefinite pronouns in sentence. (yanda ake anfani da 'indefinite pronouns a cikin jimla)
Many were invited, but few attended. mutane da yawa aka gayyato amma ƙalilan ne suka halarto.
Somebody ate my food. wani ya cinye abinci na
Everyone says she's attractive. kowa yana cewa ita kyakkyawa ce.
No one wants to accepted that he's unskilled. babu wanda zai amince da cewa shi bashi da ƙwarewa.
Adjective are words that describe or modify other words. There is no general rule for making adjectives. we can only identity them by what they do in a sentence. Nevertheless, some words endings are typical of adjectives. E.g
Adjectives kalmomi ne da suke siffantawa ko sauya wasu kalmomin. babu wata hanya tsayayyiya da ake anfani da ita gurin samar da adjective. zamu iya gane sune kawai ta hanyar la'akari da yanda suke aiki a cikin jimla. Amma duk da haka za'a iya gane wasu daga cikin adjective ta hanyar la'akari da haruffan dake ƙarken kalma. Misali
spontaneous, ambitious, disastrous, anxious, dangerous, famous
angry, busy, wealthy, windy
Example of Adjective in sentence (yanda ake anfani da 'adjective' a cikin jimla)
The couple live in an attractive and big house. Ma'auratan suna zama ne a wani babban gida mai kyau
As the climate is cold today, most women can't went out topless. saboda gari yana da sanyi yau, yawancin mata baza su iya fita ba tare da rufe saman jikin su ba.
TYPES OF ADJECTIVES (karkasuwan 'adjective')
Adjective of quality
Adjective of quantity
Adjective of possession
1. ADJECTIVE OF POSSESSION
Adjective of possession are used to indicate possession. E.g
Ana anfani da adjective of possession ne domin nuna alaman mallakan abu. Misali:
My (nawa), your (naka/naku), his (nashi), her (nata), its (nashi), our (namu), their (nasu)
2. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES
Demonstrative adjectives are used to demonstrate specific people, animals or things. E.g
Ana anfani da Demonstrative adjective ne domin yin nuni ko misalta wasu mutane, dabbobi ko abubuwa marasa rai. Misali:
This (wannan), that (wancan), those (waɗancan), these (waɗannan)
Example of demonstrative adjectives in sentence. (misalan 'demonstrative adjectives' a cikin jimla)
These books belong to Musa. Waɗannan littafin mallakin musa ne.
This app is awesome. wannan manhajar gangariya ce.
Please take those children to school. Don Allah ka kai waɗannan yaran makaranta.
3. INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES
There are three interrogative adjectives in English, "which, what, and whose". Interrogative adjectives are used to ask questions. E.g.
Ana anfani da interrogative adjectives ne gurin yin tambaya, a turanci muna da interrogative adjectives guda uku ne kawai. wato "which, what, whose"
Example of interrogative adjectives in sentence. (yanda ake anfani da 'interrogative adjectives" a cikin jimla)
Which app do you like best? wata manhaja kafi so?
What time are you going to depart? wane lokaci ne kake son tashi?
Whose books are those? littafin waye waɗannan?
4. ADJECTIVE OF QUANTITY
Adjective of quantity describe the quantity of something. E.g
Adjective of quantity yana nuna yawan abu ne. Misali:
How many phones do you have? "i have only one" wayoyi nawa ne kake dasu? guda ɗaya kawai gare ni.
Do you plan on buying more phones? yes i want many phones. Shin kana da shirin siyan wasu wayoyin? E, ina son wayoyi da yawa.
I surprise to know you ate that whole beans! na yi mamaki dana san cewa ka cinye waken nan duka.
5. ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY
Adjective of quality describes the characteristics of a noun. They answer the question "what kind". Adjectives of quality describe the noun and tell us more about the quality of the person, place or thing to which we are referring. e.g.
Adjective of quality suna siffanta mana irin nau'in noun ne. Sune amsa ga tambayar "wani nau'in abu ne". Adjectives of quality sun kasance suna siffanta kalmomin noun sannan suyi mana ƙarin bayani game da abun da muke magana akai. Misali
golden (na zinari)
powerful (mai ƙarfi)
dirty (mai dauɗa)
useful (mai anfani)
talkative (mai magana)
pleasant (mai gamsarwa)
1. ADJECTIVE WITH '-ING'
Adjectives can be formed from verb by adding "-ing" e.g
Za'a iya samar da adjectives daga cikin verb ta hanyar sanya "-ing" a ƙarken kalma. Misali
amusing (mai sa raha)
annoy (ɓata rai)
annoying (mai ɓata rai)
boring (mai damu)
disappoint (bada haushi)
disappointing (mai bada haushi)
exciting (mai sa fara'a)
interesting (abun sha'awa)
frightening (mai tsoratarwa)
shocking (mai girgizawa)
surprising (mai bada mamaki)
worrying (mai sa damuwa)
Example of adjective with "-ing" in sentence.
I downloaded a very interesting app in play store. na saukar da wata manhaja mai ban sha'awa a shafin play store.
Horror movies are really terrifying. finafinan dodanni suna da matuƙar bada tsoro.
2. ADJECTIVE WITH '-ED'
Adjective can be formed from verb by adding "-ed" Eg.
Za'a iya samar da adjectives daga cikin verb ta hanyar sanya haruffan '-ed' a ƙarken kalma. Misali
Example of adjectives with "-ed" in sentence
Some educated consider illiterates as bored. wasu masu ilimi suna yiwa jahilai kallon mutane ƙasƙantattu.
Women don't like horror movies because they make them terrified. mata basa son finafinan dodanni saboda yana sa su firgita.
3. COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES
Comparative adjectives are use to compare a word to another, eg.
Ana anfani da comparative adjectives ne domin kwatanta wata kalma da wata. Misali:
IPhone is undoubtedly better but it's much more expensive. babu shakka IPhone itace waya mafi inganci amma kuma tana da tsada sosai.
He's happier today. ya fi farin ciki yau.
Their house is bigger. gidan su babba ne.
We use "than" if we want to compare one thing with another.
Zamu iya yin anfani da 'than' idan muna so mu kwatanta wani abu da wasu. Misali:
My sister is four years older than Ahmad. 'yar uwata ta girma Ahmad da shekaru huɗu.
Kaduna is much bigger than Kano. Kaduna ta fi Kano girma.
He's better interpreter than Nuhu. ya fi Nuhu iya yin fassara.
Ipad is a bigger phone than iPhone. na'urar ipad ta fi iPhone girma.
We can use "and" along with two comparatives to show how someone or something changes. E.g
Zamu iya yin anfani da "and" tare da "comparative" guda biyu domin nuna yanda abu yake canzawa. Misali:
The swollen got bigger and bigger. kunburin yana ta ci gaba da ƙara girma.
Price of commodities is getting more and more expensive. farashin kayayyaki yana ta ci gaba da ƙara tsada.
I'm looking older and older. ina ta ci gaba da ƙara tsufa.
"The" is usually used with comparative adjectives to show that one thing depends on another.
Galibi ana yin anfani da 'the' tare da comparative adjectives domin nuna cewa wani abu ya dogara ne ga wani. Misali:
The higher the price, the lower the demand. idan farashin abu yayi sama, buƙatar shi zata yi ƙasa.
The healthier the cow, the more milk it can produce. yawan madarar da saniya zata samar ya danganta ne da irin lafiyar ta.
4. SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES
"The" is use with superlative adjectives,
Ana yin anfani da "the" tare da superlative adjective. Misali:
My marriage day was the happiest day of my life. ranar aure na ita ce ranar dana fi farin ciki a rayuwa ta.
Chinese phones are the cheapest phones in the world. wayoyin ƙasar Sin sune wayoyi mafi arha a duniya.
Mujadala is the best Hausa movie i ever watch. Mujadala shine shirin film na Hausa mafi inganci dana taɓa kallo.
Ahmad have four children, Amina is the oldest and Nuhu is the youngest. Ahmad yana da yara huɗu, Amina itace babbarsu, sannan Nuhu shine ƙaramin su.
1 .COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES
If word have one syllable; add "-er" for the comparative and '-est' for the superlative. E.g
Idan ya kasance kalma tana da gaɓa guda ɗaya ne kawai, zaku sanya "-er" ne a ƙarkenta domin mayar da ita comparative, sannan ku sanya "-est" domin mayar da ita superlative. Misali
If adjective ends in "-e", its comparative can be found by adding "y" and by adding "st" for superlative.
Idan harafin ƙarke na adjective ya kasance "-e" ne, to za'a samar da comparative ɗin shi ta hanyar ƙara harafin 'r', sannan kuma a ƙara haruffan 'st' domin samar da superlative ɗin shi"
If an adjective ends in a vowel and a consonant; we double the consonant. E.g
Idan ya kasance adjective ya ƙare da harafi ne, amma kuma wasali ne a bayan harafin, to anan zamu ruɓanya harafin ne. Misali:
But when adjective end in a consonant and '-y', we change '-y' to '-i' and add 'er' for comparative, or '-t' for superlative.
Amma idan kalmar adjective ta ƙare da harafi, kuma sannan 'y' shine a gaban harafin; to anan zamu canza '-y' ya koma 'i' sannan daga bisani mu sanya "-er" domin samar da comparative ko kuma mu sanya "est" domin samar da superlative. Misali:
'More' and 'most' can be use to make comparative and superlative for most two syllable adjectives and for all adjectives with three or more syllables. eg.
Ana anfani da 'more' da kuma 'most' domin yin comparative da kuma superlative na yawancin kalmomin da suke da gaɓoɓi biyu, uku ko fiye. Misali
But some adjectives have irregular comparatives and superlatives.
Amma waɗansu adjectives ɗin yanayin yanda ake comparative da kuma superlative nasu ya banbanta. Misali
1. MAIN VERBS (kalmomin aiki na asali)
Main verbs have meanings related to what actually happen. Examples of main verbs are:
Main verb yana yin nuni ne ga haƙiƙanin abun daya ke faruwa. Misalan Main verb sune kamar haka:
I and my daughter went home after the juma'at prayer. ni da ɗiya ta mun tafi gida bayan sallar juma'a.
It rain heavy in August. ana yin ruwa mai ƙarfi a cikin watan Ogusta.
Different types of animals exist. akwai nau'uka daban daban na dabbobi.
Linking verbs are verbs that not followed by objects. in contrary, they are followed by phrases that give more information about the subject (e.g. noun phrases, adjective phrases, adverb phrases or prepositional phrases). some linking verbs are:
Linking verbs sune waɗanda ba'a sanya kalmomin 'object' (noun wanda aiki ya shafa a cikin jimla) a gaban su. sai dai su sun kasance ana sanya su ne a gaban phrases (kalmomin da suke a dunƙule) waɗanda suke yin ƙarin bayani akan subject. Wasu daga cikin linking verbs sune kamar haka:
appear (bayyana), feel (ji a jiki), look (kalla), seem (yi kamar), be (kasance), get (samu), remain (rage), smell (yin wari), taste (ɗanɗana), become (zamanto)
Example of linking verbs in sentence. (yanda ake anfani da 'linking verbs' a cikin jimla)
Someone appeared at the doors entrance. it was Musa. (prepositional phrase). wani ya bayyana a ƙofar shigowa, ba kowa bane face musa.
He's a cousin of mine (noun phrase). Shi ɗan yaya ta ne.
This hat feels good (adjective phrase). wannan hular tana da kyau.
Hasan remained outside while his wife went into the shop. (adverb phrase) Hasan ya kasance a waje lokacin da matar shi ta shige cikin shagon.
There are three well known auxiliary verbs in English: be, do, and have. Auxiliary verbs usually come before 'main verbs'
A turanci muna da auxiliary verb guda uku ne waɗanda aka fi sani, wato "be, do, da kuma "have". Galibi Auxiliary verb suna zuwa ne kafin main verb.
(a) Auxiliary be
'Auxiliary be' is used to indicate the continuous and the passive voice.
Ana anfani da Auxiliary na be ne domin nuna aikin dake gudana da kuma wada aka kammala.
Example of Auxiliary 'b' in sentence.
I'm waiting for my wife to come back (continuous). ina jiran matata ta dawo.
Her android phone was stolen in her room. an sace wayar ta ta android a cikin ɗakin ta.
(b) Auxiliary do
Auxiliary 'do' is used in interrogative, negative and emphatic structures.
Ana yin anfani da Auxiliary do ne gurin tambaya, ko a jimlar da take musanta magana ko kuma gurin ƙarfafa magana.
Example of Auxiliary do in sentence
Does she live in Kano? (interrogative) shin tana rayuwa ne a Kano?
They didn't know his name (negative). basu san sunan shi ba.
I do like your dressing (emphatic) (ina son irin sanya kayanka)
(c) Auxiliary have
Auxiliary have is used to indicate the perfect.
Ana yin anfani da auxiliary have ne domin nuna cewa aiki ya kammala.
Example of 'auxiliary have' in sentence.
Ive lost my wallet. have you seen it anywhere? (present perfect) na ɓatar da lalitata, shin ko ka gan ta a wani guri?
She had left her car outside (past perfect). ta bar motarta a waje.
4. MODAL VERBS
Modal verbs are used with other verbs to express ability, obligation or possibility and certainty.
Ana yin anfani da modal verb tare da waɗansu kalmomin verbs domin nuna cewa abu zai yiwu, domin nuna cewa abu ya kamata, domin nuna cewa abu zai yiwu ko domin cewa akwai tabbaci tattare da abu.
Modal verbs waɗanda aka fi sani sune kamar haka:
can, may, must, should, could, might, shall, will.
Example of modal verbs in sentence. yanda ake anfani da "modal verb" a cikin jimla.
I will be there around 10 p.m. zan kasance a gurin da misalin ƙarfe goma na dare.
An android phone could cost around N20000. farashin wayar Android zai iya kai wa Naira dubu ashirin.
I must write something on the blackboard. dole sai na rubuta wani abu akan allon.
Semi modal verbs
Ought to, used to, got to, have to.
waɗannan kalmomin na sama kuma suna aiki kusan iri ɗaya da "modal verbs"
Zaku iya yin anfani da modal verbs domin bada taimako, neman shawara ko bayar da shawara, neman izini ko kuma domin bayar da izini.
Misalan modal verbs a cikin Jimla
1. Ana anfani da modal verbs (can, will, could, would) domin neman alfarma. Misali:
Can you help me, please?
Ko zaka iya taimaka mini, don Allah?
Will you close the door?
Ko zaka iya kulle tagar?
Could you tell me the time, please?
Ko zaka iya gaya mini lokaci, Don Allah?
Abun lura: 'could' da kuma 'would' sunfi karɓuwa kuma sunfi nuna girmamawa
2. Ana anfani da modal verbs (can, could, may) domin neman izini ko bayar da izini
You can borrow my car
Zaka iya arar motata
Can i have some more soup?
Ko zan iya samun karin miya?
Could i speak to the manager, please?
Ko zan iya samun daman yin magana da manajan don Allah?
May i go to the cinema, please?
Ko zan iya zuwa cinema?
Abun lura: 'could' yafi nuna girmamawa fiye da 'can'. sannan kuma anfi yin anfani da 'may' a karɓaɓɓen turancin ingilishi3. Ana anfani da modal verbs (can, may, shall, will) domin bayar da taimako
Can i give you a hand?
Ko zan iya miko maka hannu?
May i help you?
Ko zan iya taimaka maka?
Shall i carry your bag?
Ko zan iya daukan jakarka?
I'll show you the way
Zan nuna maka gurin
4. Ana anfani da modal verbs (should, ought to, shall and must) domin bayar da shawara ko kuma domin neman shawara.
You should take more exercise
Yana da kyau ka samu motsa jiki sosai
You ought to go to the dentist's
Ya kamata kaje gurin likitan hakora
Shall we try again?
Ya kamata ace mun sake kokartawa kuma?
You must try this cake- it's delicious!
dole ne ka jaraba wannan gurasar domin tana da dandano mai daɗi
5. Za kuma ku iya yin anfani da modal verb (must, can't will) domin cewa dole abu Ya faru
He must be here already- there's his car.
dole ne ya zamana ya riga yazo, domin akwai motarsa a gurin
She's late. She must have missed the bus.
ta makara, don haka dole ya zamana ta kurkure motar safar
You can't have finished already.
Ba zai yiwu ace ka kammala tuntuni ba!
we won't be beaten.
baza a dakemu ba
I shan't forget you.
bazan taba mantawa da kai ba.
6. Ana anfani da modal verbs (should, ought to) domin nuna abun da ake tsammanin zai faru
it ought to be finished by tonight
Ya dace a gama shi daga nan zuwa dare
it's only a headache- i should feel better in the morning
ciwon kai ne kawai nake fama dashi, ina sa ran zan samu sauki da safe.
7. Ana anfani da modal verbs (may, could, might) domin nuna abu mai yiwuwa
I think i may be late home tonight
Ina ganin zan iya makara zuwa gida da dare
it could be in the cubboard- i'm not sure.
Zai iya yiwuwa abun yana cikin cubboard, amma ban tabbatar ba
i might have left it on the bus, i can't remember.
Zai iya yiwuwa na barsa a cikin mota, amma bazan iya tunawa ba
Wasu daga cikin kura kuren da ya kamata ku lura dasu
Don't say: I must to do my homework. Say: I must do my homework
Ba zai yiwu ace kalmar "to" ta biyo bayan modal verbs ba.
Don't say: he musts do his homework. Say:He must do his homework
Ba'a sanya wa modal verbs 's' domin maidashi third person singular.
1. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS.
Transitive verb: A transitive verb is a verb that go with an object: noun, phrase or pronoun that refers to the person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb.
Transitive verb wani verb ne da yake aiki tare da object (noun, phrase, ko pronoun da suke yin nuni ga mutum ko wani abu da aikin kalmar verb ya shafa)
Example of transitive verb in sentence. Misalan yanda ake anfani da transitive verb a cikin jimla.
Yusuf admire your intelligence. Yusuf yana jinjinawa basirarka.
They need to maintain milk quality. akwai buƙatar su inganta ingancin madarar.
He couldn't face the girl. bazai iya fuskantar yarinyar ba.
Britains love cats. 'yan birtaniya suna son mage.
In the above sentences, admire, maintain, face, and love are transitive verbs.
Idan kuka lura da waɗannan jimlolin dake sama, zaku ga cewa kalmomin transitive verbs dake ciki sune; admire, maintain, face, da kuma love.
Some transitive verbs can go with both direct and indirect object. The below table is a list of some verbs that can go with both direct and indirect object.
Wasu daga cikin transitive verbs za'a iya anfani dasu tare da direct object ko indirect object. Wannan teburin na ƙasa yana ƙunshe ne da wasu daga cikin kalmomin verb waɗanda zasu iya yin aiki tare da direct objects ko indirect objects.
Musa gave her some money to spend in Sallah day.
Musa ya bata wasu kuɗaɗe domin ta kashe ranar Sallah.
Can i buy you a book?
Ko zan iya siyan maka littafi?
Musa passed him a cup of milk.
Musa ya tura masa kofin madara.
Shall i make us some meal?
Ko kana so na kawo mana abinci?
Ahmad was trying to sell his house to me.
Ahamad yana son ya siyar min da gidan shi.
We took Ahmad some books and pen.
Mun ɗaukan ma Ahmad wasu littafai da kuma alƙalami.
Show me your house.
nuna min gidanka.
Dangote cement factory has offered me a job.
Masarrafar simintin Ɗangwate ta bani aiki.
leave me an Email and I'll replay back to you.
Ka aiko min da saƙon Email, zan baka amsa.
Ahmad wished us all the best for the future.
Ahmad yana yi mana fatan alheri akan makomar mu nan gaba.
could you lend me some money.
ko zaka iya bani rancen wasu kuɗaɗe?
my mistake cost me my job.
kuskuran dana yi yasa na rasa aiki na.
Intransitive verb: An intransitive verb doesn't have an object. Consider the below sentences.
Intransitive verb bashi da object. Ku lura da waɗannan jimlolin dake ƙasa:
The baby was crying. Jaririn yana kuka.
I work for Dangote cement factory in Kano. ina yin aiki a masarrafar simintin ɗangwate dake Kano.
Habiba laughed uncontrollably. Habiba ta yi ta dariya ba tare da ƙaƙƙautawa ba.
We talked for hours. mun ɗauki sa'o'i muna yin magana.
Transitive verb in the above sentences are: cry, work, laugh, and talked.
Kalmomin transitive verbs a cikin waɗannan jimlolin na sama sune: cry, work, laugh, da kuma talked.
The soldiers sang national anthem. (transitive). sojojin suna rera taken ƙasa.
Hasana always sings in the room. A koda yaushe Hasana tana rera waƙa a cikin ɗaki.
She left Kano in the morning (transitive). ta bar Kano da safiya.
I want to leave early. (intransitive) ina so na bar gurin da wuri.
The below table is a list of some common verbs that can be transitive or intransitive.
Wannan teburin na ƙasa jadawalin wasu kalmomin 'verb' ne waɗanda zasu iya kasancewa transitive da kuma intransitive
could you move your car please?
The trees were moving in the breeze.
Bello was found guilty for starting the fight.
The meeting starts at 4pm.
education hasn't changed him.
Sabon gari area changed significantly in the last decade.
close the door, i saw someone coming towards.
Most banks in Zaria close at 4:00pm
open the door and window, there is fresh air outside.
The commercial banks opens at 8:00 a.m.
Musa tried to stop the woman from leaving.
When the rain stopped, the children went back to home.
Have you done your duty?
Musa doing well in his duty.
Musa set a chair next to the bed.
The sun setting and a red glow filled the sky.
Ahmad tend to run a website.
The path ran over the hill.
My parents lived till their eighties.
Have you washed your hand?
I washed uniform and went to school.
write your name here.
Illiterate couldn't read or write.
Phrasal verbs is a verb that formed from main verb together with an adverb or preposition or both.
Phrasal verbs kalmomi ne na 'verb' waɗanda ake samar dasu daga cikin 'main verb' kuma suna samuwa ne idan aka haɗa "main verb" da kuma "adverb" ko "preposition" koma duka.
Misalan phrasal verbs: call up, find out, hand in, make up, put off, turn on, write up, hand over.
Example of phrasal verbs in sentence. Misalan 'phrasal verbs' a cikin jimla.
Guys are often looked down on me. samari suna yawan yi mini kallon banza.
Crisis broke out in southern Kaduna. rikici ya ɓarke a kudancin jihar Kaduna.
Don't put me off, I'm trying to concentrate. kada ka ɗauke min hankali, ina ƙoƙarin yanke shawara ne.
The report spelled out the need for more troops. rahoton ya bankaɗo buƙatar ƙarin dakaru.
Phrasal verbs usually their meaning differ from the meaning of common words, for instance, in the first example, the phrasal verbs to look down on someone doesn't mean that you should look down from a higher place at someone that is below you; it means that you think you're superior than him.
Galibi yanda ake fassara phrasal verbs ya banbanta da yanda ake fassara sauran kalmomi. alal misali idan kuka duba jimla ta farko, kalmar "look down on someone" baza ka fassara ta da "kallon mutum daga sama ba" (duk kuwa da cewa abun da aka rubuta ke nan) a,a, kalmar tana nufin kafi wani daraja (wato yima mutum kallon banza)
Phrasal verbs can be intransitive (they have no object)
Phrasal verbs zai iya kasancewa intransitive (wanda bashi da 'object')
They broke up two years ago. sun rabu shekaru biyu da suka gabata.
We close off early to go home. mun kulle da wuri domin muje gida.
He pulled up outside the house. ya fita waje daga cikin gida.
Phrasal verbs can be transitive (they can have an object)
Phrasal verbs zai iya kasancewa transitive (wato zai iya zama yana da 'object')
Their parents were called to break up the fight. An kira iyayensu domin su raba faɗan.
When the door is opened, it sets off an alarm. lokacin da ƙofar ta buɗe, sai ƙararrawa ta kaɗa.
They pulled the house down and redeveloped the site. sun rushe gidan sannan suka sake gyara gurin.
Adverbs are words that modify verbs.
Adverbs kalmomi ne da suke sauya "verb"
Types of adverbs (nau'ukan adverb)
1. Adverb of time/frequency: This tell us when or how an action occurs.
Adverb of time/frequency. yana labarta mana lokacin da wani aiki ya faru, ko kuma yanda ya faru.
I went to my grandparent house yesterday. na je gidan kakanni na jiya.
I've intention to visit my grandparent now. ina da niyyan ziyartar kakanni na yanzu.
2. Adverb of place/direction: It expresses where an action take place. E.g.
Adverb of place/direction yana fayyace mana gurin da wani aiki ya faru. Misali:
His wife came here. matarshi ta zo nan.
He hide under the table. ya ɓoye a ƙarƙashin teburin.
3. Adverb of manner: It express how action happen.
Adverb of manner yana nuna yanayin yadda wani aiki yake faruwa. Misali:
He understand quickly. yana fahimta cikin sauri.
I work as long as i can. Ina yin gudu iyakacin iyawata.
4. Adverb of comparison: This compares two or three things.
Ana anfani da adverb of comparison ne domin ne domin nuna banbancin dake tsakanin abubuwa. Domin ƙarin bayani sai a duba gurin "adjective comparison"
Prepositions are most commonly followed by a noun, phrase or pronoun. Prepositions relate words or elements in a sentence. There are over 200 prepositions in English, the most common single prepositions are:
Galibi "noun", "phrase" ko "pronoun" sune suke kasancewa a gaban "prepositions". "Prepositions" yana nuna alaƙa ne tsakanin kalmomi ko wasu abubuwa. Akwai sama da prepositions 200 a turanci. Amma waɗanda suka fi shahara sune kamar haka:
Example of preposition in sentence. misalan preposition a cikin jimla
The first time i saw Amina she was walking down the road. lokaci na farko dana ga Amina ta kasance tana gangarawa ƙasan hanyar ce.
I found him in the hospital opposite the mosque. na same shi a cikin asibitin dake daura da masallacin.
It may be difficult to stay calm during a war. zai wahala hankalinka ya iya kwanciya lokacin yaƙi.
This war was the worst since the 1960s. wannan yaƙin shine mafi muni tin wanda aka yi a shekara ta 1960s.
Most prepositions are single words, but some pairs and groups of words work like single prepositions. For example.
Yawancin prepositions kalmomi ne na tilo, amma waɗansu tagwayen kalmomi dama jerin kalmomi suna yin aiki tamkar prepositions. Misali:
She was unable to complete her study because of lack of fund. ta kasa kammala karatunta saboda rashin kuɗi.
Maryam will stay in the classroom in place of me. Maryam zata tsaya a ajin karatun a waje na.
In addition to building a house, he decided to buy new car. baya ga gina wani gida, ya yanke shawarar siyan sabuwar mota.
The girl always get nervous when she was speaking in front of an audience. yarinyar a koda yaushe tana fama da rawan jiki idan tana magana a gaban masu sauraro.
Some common prepositions that consist of groups of words are:
Wasu daga cikin prepositions da suka ƙunshi kalmomi masu tarin yawa sune kamar haka:
ahead of, except for, instead of, owing to, apart from, in addition to, near to, such as, as for, in front of, on account of, thanks to, as well as, in place of, on top of, up to, because of, in spite of, out of, due to, inside of, outside of
Conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences. E.g.
Conjunction yana daga cikin part of speech da ake anfani dashi gurin haɗe kalmomi, kalma fiye da ɗaya da suke a haɗe, clauses, da kuma jimloli. Misali:
but, so, and, or, yet, for, how, although, because.
Types of conjunction (nau'ukan mahaɗin kalma)
There are three major types of conjunctions in English.
Muna da conjunction iri uku ne waɗanda aka fi sani a turanci kamar haka:
1. Coordinating Conjunctions
These conjunctions joins words, phrases or clauses that have similar grammatical structure. The most common coordinating conjunctions are "and" "or" and "but".
Coordinating conjunctions ya kasance yana haɗe kalmomi, phrases ko clause da yanayin tsarin nahawunsu ya kasance iri ɗaya ne. Coordinating conjunctions waɗanda suka fi shahara sune kamar haka: "and" "or" da kuma "but"
Read the following example, the sections that we underlined are the words, phrases and clauses joined by the coordinating conjunction. While the bolded words are the coordinating conjunction
A karanta misalan dake ƙasa, sashin da muka ja layi a ƙasa sashi ne na kalmomi, phrases da kuma clauses waɗanda coordinating conjunction suka haɗe su. Sannan kuma kalmomin da muka kaurara su sune coordinating conjunction. ɗin.
He bought an orangeanda pen. (two word) ya sayo lemu da kuma alƙalami.
He remember to come with his bagandpen. (two words) ya tuna sannan ya zo da jakarsa da kuma alƙalamin shi.
You can browse the internet on mobile phoneoron laptop computer. (two phrases) Zaka iya shiga yanar gizo ta wayar hannu ko na'urar laptop. (a wannan jimlar 'phrase' guda biyu ne aka haɗe)
Nafisat always stay in the libraryorin the classroom. (two phrases) Nafisat a koda yaushe tana zama ne a ɗakin karatu ko ajin karatu ('phrases' biyu ne aka haɗe su a wannan jimlar ta hanyar amfani da "or")
I waited for herbutshe didn't come. (two clauses) na jira ta amma bata zo ba ('clauses' guda biyu ne aka haɗe a cikin wannan jimlar ta hanyar amfani da "but")
She asked him for assistancebuthe didn't help her. (two clauses) ta buƙace shi daya taimake ta, amma bai taimake ta ba. ('clauses' biyu ne aka haɗe a cikin wannan jimlar ta hanyar amfani da 'but')
As you observe in the above examples, the words, phrases, sentences and clauses that joined by coordinating conjunctions are of similar grammatical pattern.
Idan kun lura a cikin misalan dake sama, kalmomi, phrases, jimloli da kuma clauses waɗanda coordinating conjunctions suka haɗe, zaku ga cewa yanayin tsarin nahawun su iri ɗaya ne.
2. Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate clause to a main clause. common subordinating conjunctions are:
Aikin da subordinating conjunctions yake yi shine haɗe subordinating clause. Subordinating conjunctions da aka fi sani sune kamar haka:
after, although, as, before, if, since, that, until, when, whereas, while, once, so, as soon as, provided that.
Main clause vs subordinating clause: A main clause are words that have subject and verb. Main clause can work alone as a sentence on the basis that it have complete meaning. While subordinate clause cannot work alone as a sentence because it lack complete meaning. It relies on main clause to give complete meaning. Observe the following example:
"Main clause" kalmomi ne masu "subject" da kuma "verb". "Main clause" zai iya yin aiki shi kaɗai a cikin jimla saboda yana bada cikakkiyar ma'ana. Amma subordinate clause bazai iya yin aiki shi kaɗai ba a cikin jimla saboda ba zai bada cikakkiyar ma'ana ba. Yana dogara ne da main clause domin bayar da cikakkiyar ma'ana. A lura da misalan dake ƙasa:
After we had talked on the phone (subordinate clause) i wrote down what we had decided (main clause). bayan mun yi magana a waya, sai na rubuta abun da muka yanke shawara.
Everyone enjoyed the fishing trip (main clause) although no one caught any fish. (subordinate clause). Kowa yana jin daɗin tafiya kama kifi, duk kuwa da cewa babu wanda ya kama wani kifi.
In general, if subordinate clause comes before the main clause, a comma should be added at the end of the clause. But there is no need to add comma if the main clause comes first.
A koda yaushe idan subordinate clause tazo kafin main clause, to ana so a sanya 'comma' a ƙarken 'clause' ɗin. Amma ba'a buƙatar a sanya comma idan 'main clause' shine wanda ya fara zuwa.
2. Correlative Conjunction
Correlative conjunctions come in pairs. It joins words, phrases or clauses. The common correlative conjunctions are:
Correlative conjunctions kalmomi ne da suke zuwa biyu a haɗe, kuma sun kasance suna haɗe kalmomi, phrases da kuma clauses.
Correlative conjunctions waɗanda aka fi sani sune kamar haka:
Example of correlative conjunction in sentence. Misalan 'correlative conjunction' a cikin jimla.
You can eat either bread or biskit. zaka iya cin ko dai biskit ko biredi.
He eat neither bread nor biscuit. bai ci biredi ko biskit ba.
Both bread and biscuit are delicious. biredi da biskit duk suna da daɗi.
I didn't know whether he like bread or biscuit. ban sani ba biskit yake so ko biredi.
Interjection are used to express strong emotions, such as pleasure, surprise, shock, and disgust. Some interjections are:
Ana anfani da interjection ne domin nuna shauƙi mai ƙarfi, kamar sha'awa, mamaki, kaɗuwa ko kuma ƙyama. Wasu daga cikin interjection sune kamar haka: oh!, Ah!, Alas!