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1. Prefix

Prefix is a group of letters attach to the beginning of a word to modify and give a new meaning. Below is a list of common English prefixes.

Prefix wasu kalmomi ne da ake liƙawa a farkon kalma domin canza kalma tare da bada sabuwar ma'ana. Teburin nan na ƙasa jadawalin prefix ne da aka fi yin anfani dasu a turanci.

PrefixMeaningExamples
Anti-maƙiyin abu, mai hana abu faruwaantimalerial (mai kashe cutar malaria), antidepressant (mai kauda baƙin ciki), antiislam (maƙiyin musulinci)
circum-kewayecircumnavigate (kewaye ko ina), circumvent (kewayawa tare da wuce abun daya tare maka hanya)
co-tare dacoworker (wanda kuke aiki tare dashi), cooperation (yin aikin tarayya)
deɗebeba, cirewa, ɗaukewadeactivate (sanya abu ya daina aiki), demotivate (kashe wa mutum ƙwarin gwiwa)
disrashin yin abudisbelieve (rashin yin imani da abu), disapprove (rashin amincewa)
enshigarwa cikiencode (tattarawa tare da ɗaure bayanai)
emshigo daembed (mulmule)
epiakai, da, bayanepicentre (a tsakiya), epidermis (na bayan fata)
exwanda ya faru a lokutan bayaex-president (tsohon shugaban ƙasa), ex-student (tsohon ɗalibi)
extrafiye da, baya gaextraordinary (wanda yafi ƙarfin tunani), extramarital (wanda yake faruwa ba'a cikin aure ba
homoiri ɗayahomosexual (mutumin dake jima'i da irin jinsin shi = ɗan luwaɗi ko 'yar maɗigo)
hyperfiye da kimahyperactivity (aikace aikace fiye da kima), hypercritical (sukan mutum fiye da kima)
il (ana anfani dashi ne kawai idan "L" ya biyo bayan shi)not (a'a, mara yiwuwa)impossible (mara yiwuwa), immoral (rashin ɗa'a)
innot (a'a, mara yiwuwa)incorrect (kuskure), indigestive (abinci wanda baya narkewa)
intertsakanininternational (mai faruwa tsakanin ƙasashen duniya), intercontinental (mai faruwa daga wannan nahiyar zuwa wata)
intracikin, tsakaninintra-departmental (mai faruwa a cikin tsangaya)
infraƙasa da yanda ake buƙata, sama da yanda ake buƙatainfrasound (ƙaran da yayi yawa ko yayi kaɗan)
aqua-ruwaaqualung (jakar dake ba mutum daman shaƙar iska a cikin ruwa), aquarium (gilashin da ake kiwan halittun ruwa a cikin su)
ultra-matuƙa, wanda ya wuce yanda ake soUltramodern (sabo ainun, sabo matuƙa, sabo sosai), ultrawhite (wanda farin shi yayi yawa)
macro-ƙatomacroeconomics (tattalin arziki wanda ya bunƙasa sosai)
micro-ƙaramimicro-organism (ƙananun halittu), microcomputer (ƙaramar kwanfuta)
midtsakiyamidday (tsakiyar rana), midfield (tsakiyan fili)
miswanda ya faru bisa kuskuremisunderstand (kuskuran fahimta), misinterpret (kuskuran fassara)
mono-ɗayamonogamy (auren mace ɗaya ko miji ɗaya), monotone (yare ɗaya)
nonba tare da, maranonsense (mara ma'ana), nonexistence (rashin wanzuwa)
omnina ko ina, na kowaomnipotent (wanda zai iya yin komai), omnipresent (wanda yake a ko ina)
parakusanparanormal (wanda ya kusan zama dai dai), paramilitary (waɗanda suka kusan zama sojoji)
postbayanpostgraduate (mutum bayan ya kammala karatun digiri), postelection (bayan kammala zaɓe)
prekafinprepaid (bayan biya tukunna), prewar (kafin yaƙi)
resakewa kumareapply (sake anfani da), redo (sake yi)
semirabisemicircle (rabin circle)
subna cikin, ƙasa dasubzero (ƙasa da sifili), submarine (na ƙasan teku)
superfiye da kimasuperhuman (wanda ƙarfin shi ya wuce na mutane), superich (mai dukiya fiye da kima)
thermo-wanda ya shafi zafithermometer (na'urar auna zafi)
trans-tsakanin, tatransatlantic (ta tekun atlantic)
tri-guda ukutricycle (keke mai taya uku), triangle (kusurwa mai ƙafa uku)
unnot/maraunfinished (wanda ba'a kammala ba), unknown (wanda ba'a sani ba)
uniɗayaUniversal (na bai ɗaya), unicycle (keke mai taya ɗaya), unicellular (wanda yake da cell guda ɗaya)
aba tare daatheist (wanda bai yi imani da Allah ba)
automai aiki da kanshiautoexposure (mai fitowa da kanshi)
biguda biyubilingual (yare biyu), bisexual (na jinsin mace dana miji)
countermai kawar da wani abucounterattack (harin mai da martani), counterterrorism (harin kawar da ta'addanci)
malwanda ba'a yishi yanda ya kamata ba.malfunction (yin aiki ba yanda ya kamata ba)
multida yawamultitask (aiki da yawa)
afrowanda ya shafi Africaafroamerican (ɗan Amurka mai usuli daga nahiyar Africa.)
overfiye da kimaoverpopulation (yawan jama'a fiye da kima)
polymai yawapolygamous (auran mata da yawa)
quadhuɗuquadrangle (layi mai 'angle' huɗu)
ir (ana anfani dashi ne kawai idan harafin 'r' ya biyo bayan shi)not, marairreligious (mara addini)
underƙasa daunder-fives ('yan ƙasa da shekara biyar), undergraduate (wanda bai kammala digiri ba)
hydrowanda ya shafi ruwahydrometer (ma'aunin auna ruwa)
aero-wanda ya shafi iskaaeroplane (jirgin mai tashi cikin iska= jirgin sama)

Suffix

Suffixes are letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to make a new word

Suffixes wasu haruffa ne da ake liƙawa a ƙarken kalmomi domin sauya ma'anar kalma.

ear

Yana nuna cewa mutum yana da alaƙa da wani abu. Misali 'auctioneer" (ɗa gwanjo). An fitar da kalmar ce daga cikin kalmar "auction" (gwanjo)

er

Yana nuna cewa mutum yana aikata wani abu. Misali "helper" (mai taimako). An fitar da kalmar ce daga cikin kalmar 'help' (taimako)

ion

Ana amfani dashi ne domin samar da suna daga cikin aiki (make noun from verb) misali "celebration" da aka fiddo daga cikin kalmar "celebrate"

ity

Ana amfani dashi ne domin samar da siffa daga cikin wasu part of speech ɗin, ko kuma domin ƙara ƙarfafa wasu adjective. Misali "equality" da aka samo daga cikin kalmar "equal"

ment

Ana anfani dashi ne domin samar da suna daga cikin aiki (makes nouns from verb) Misali kalmar "movement" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "move"

ness

Ana anfani dashi ne domin samar da suna daga cikin siffa (makes nouns from adjectives) Misali: "darkness" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "dark"

or

Ana anfani dashi ne domin nuna aikin da mutum yake yi, Misali: "investigator" (mai bincike) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "investigate" (bincike)

sion

Ana anfani dashi ne domin nuna irin halin da mutum yake ciki. Misali "depression" (baƙin ciki) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "depress"

ship

Yana nuna gurin da abu yake, Misali kalmar "ownership" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "owner"

th

Yana nuna halin da abu yake ciki, Misali "warmth" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "warm"

able, ible

Suna nuna cewa abu zai yiwu. Misali "preventable" (wanda za'a iya hana aukuwarsa) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "prevent" (hana)

al

Ana anfani dashi ne wajen nuna cewa wani ya aikata wani abu ko wani abu ya faru (makes noun from verbs) Misali "arrival" (Isowa) da aka fiddo daga cikin kalmar "arrive", ko "refusal" (ƙin biyayya) da aka fiddo daga cikin kalmar "refuse"

ary

Ana anfani dashi ne domin nuna cewa abu na da alaƙa da wani lamari. Misali "budgetary" (abun daya shafi kasafi) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "budget" (kasafin kuɗi)

ful

Yana nufin mai cike da, ko mai tattare da. Misali kalmar wonderful (mai ban al'ajabi) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar wonder (al'ajabi)

ic

Mai alaƙa da. Misali "organic" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar 'organ'.

ious, ous,

Ana anfani dasu ne domin ƙara ƙarfafa kalma. Misali "dangerous" (mai hatsari) da aka fitar daga cikin kalmar "danger" (hatsari)

ive

Ana anfani dashi ne domin samar da siffa daga cikin aiki. Misali "creative" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "create"

less

ba tare da. Misali "sleepless" (rashin bacci) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "sleep" (bacci)

y

Yana nufin 'na'. Misali "brainy" (na ƙwaƙwalwa) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "brain" (ƙwaƙwalwa)

ed

Ana anfani dashi ne domin nuna cewa an riga an aikata wani aiki (past tense) Misali "called" da aka fiddo daga cikin kalmar "call"

en

Zamantowa. Misali "lengthen" (tsawaita) da aka fiddo daga cikin kalmar "length" (tsawo)

er

Ana anfani dashi domin samar da adjective comparative. Misali "bigger" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar big.

ing

Yana nuna present participle. Misali "laughing" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "laugh"

ize, ise

Mayarwa zuwa wani abu daban. Misali "memorize" (haddace) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "memory" (hadda)

ly

Ana anfani dashi domin nuna yanayin yanda abu yake wakana. Misali "honesty" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "honest"

ward

Yana nufin a wani ɓangare. Misali "backward" (a ɓangaren baya) da aka fiddo daga cikin kalmar "back" (baya)

wise

irin na abu kaza. Misali clockwise (mai siffar agogo) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "clock" (agogo)

ism

Yana nuna abun da mutum yayi imani dashi ko ra'ayin siyasa. Misali "catholism" da aka fitar daga cikin kalmar "catholic"

ist

Ana amfani dashi domin danganta abu ga wani. Misali islamist (mai ra'ayin musulinci) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar 'islam' (musulinci)

ish

Kasancewa kana da wata irin ɗabi'a. Misali "childish" (mai halin yara) da aka samo daga cikin kalmar "child" (yaro)

phobia

Tsoro. Misali "socialphobia" (tsoron zumunci ko jama'a) da aka samo daga cikin kalmar "social" (na jama'a)

an

Ana amfani dashi domin danganta wani abu ga wani. Misali "Nigerian" (na Nigeria ko ɗan Nigeria) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar Nigeria.

ee

Mutumin da wani aiki ya shafa. Misali "nominee" (mutumin da aka zaɓa) da aka fitar daga cikin kalmar "nominate" (yin zaɓe ko mubaya'a)

ence

Yana nuna cewa kalma noun ce, misali "influence"

ology

Karantar wani darasi. Misali "sociology" (karantar ilimin zamantakewar mutane) da aka fiddo daga cikin kalmar "social" (na jama'a)

dom

Mataki ko halin da abu yake. Misali "martyrdom" (shahada) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "martyr" (shahidi)

hood

Ana anfani dashi domin siffanta abu. Misali "childhood" (yaranta) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "child" yaro.

ese

Abun daya shafi wata ƙasa ko wani gari: Misali "chinese" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "china"

i

Abun daya shafi wata ƙasa ko wani gari. Misali: "Pakistani" da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "Pakistan"

ic

Wanda ya shafi wani abu. Misali "Economic" (abun daya shafi tattalin arziki) da aka samar daga cikin kalmar "economy" (tattalin arziki)

some

Mai abu kaza. Misali "fearsome" (mai sa tsoro) da aka fitar daga cikin kalmar "fear" (tsoro)

Aika Zuwa

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