Is a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind using
"as" or "like"
Simile wani karin magana ne da ake amfani dashi domin kamanta wani abu da wani abun daban wanda ba irin su ɗaya ba ta hanyar yin amfani da
"as" ko "like"
Examples of simile
Hasan is brave as a lion.= Hasan jarumi ne.
Police and druggist fought like cats and dogs.= 'Yan sanda da 'yan shaye shaye
suna wasan ɓuya.
He sleep like a dog.= yana yin barci da rana maimakon yin bacci da dare.
The love he shows towards her is as deep as the
ocean.= Ina son ki har zuci.
Metaphor is also use for making comparison just like simile, the difference is in metaphor you can
make a direct comparison with something similar without using 'like' or 'as'.
Metaphor shima ana yin amfani dashi ne domin yin kamanceceniya kaman dai simile, banbancin kawai dake tsakanin metaphor
da simile shine; smile shi yana
nuna kamanceceniya ce kai tsaye ta hanyar amfani da kalmar "like" ko "as". Amma shi metaphor kawai yana nuna kamanceceniya ne ba tare
da yin amfani da "like" ko "as" ba.
Examples of metaphor
People with creative mind are night owl. = mutane masu basirar ƙirƙire ƙirƙire basa bacci da dare
Fatima broke my heart. = Fatima ta sa ni cikin damuwa
Time is a thief. = bamu san cewa muna ɓata lokaci ba
The issue is getting out of hand. lamarin yana cigaba da ƙara rincaɓewa
Personification occurs when writer attribute human characteristics to something that isn't human, such as animals,
plants and other objects
Personification shine siffanta ɗabi'un mutum da wani abu wanda ba mutum ba,
Examples of personification
Beauty of the town caught my attention. = Kyawun garin ya sanya ina yawan kallon abubuwan da ke ciki
He went to confront the girl but he drawn back when he realized her face isn't smiling at him = ya tafi ya tunkari yarinyar amma sai
ya fasa bayan daya fuskanci ta ɗaure fuska
Hyperbole is a figure of speech that uses extreme exaggeration to show emphasis. Example.
Hyperbole wani nau'in karin magana ne da ake yawan kurantawa domin ƙarfafa magana.
Examples of Hyperbole
Everybody in Nigeria owned a mobile phone. = yawancin mutanen Naijeriya sun mallaki wayar tafi-
Words aren't sufficient for me to adequately express my gratitude to you over what
you have done. = ban ma san irin godiyar da zan yi maka ba akan abun kyautatawar da ka yi min.
I've told you to go to school a million times. = Na sha faɗa maka ka je makaranta.
She's so hungry and she could eat elephant. = za ta iya cin komai saboda yunwa
If i failed to
mary Maryam; i will die. = idan har ban samu damar auran Maryam ba to zan shiga cikin damuwa
Metonymy is a figure of speech that replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else which is closely
Metonymy wani karin magana ne da ake amfani dashi gurin maye gurbin sunan wani abu da wani abun daban da suke da kusanci.
Examples of Metonymy
After the protests, may be Washington will change its decision. = bayan zanga zangar, gwamnatin
Amurka mai yiwuwa zata iya sauya ra'ayinta.
The terrorist was just released from the big house.= ba'a jima da sakin ɗan ta'addan daga gidan kaso ba.
house" anan tana nufin gidan kaso tunda nan ne gurin da ake kai 'yan ta'adda.
The pen is mightier than the sword.= yarjejeniyar sulhu a
rubuce tafi gwabza yaƙi.
Can you give me a hand carrying this book?= ko zaka iya taimaka min na ɗauki wannan akwatin?
In this figure of speech a part or something is taken to represent the whole of it. The whole can also be used to
represent a part of something. Synecdoche is similar to metonymy, the difference is that in metonymy the name of a thing is replaces by the name
of something else, but in synecdoche a part of something is taken to represent the whole of it
For example "wheels" can means "vehicle", "boots" can means "soldiers" and "glasses" can means "eyeglasses"
Synecdoche wani karin magana ne da ake amfani dashi domin ɗauko wani yanki na magana domin wakiltar ɗaukacin yankin maganar; haka ma za a
iya yin amfani da ɗaukacin maganar domin ta wakilci wani yankin magana. Karin magana na Synecdoche yana da kamanceceniya da metonym
banbanci su kawai shine a metonymy ana maye gurbin sunan wani abu ne da sunan wani abun daban, amma a syncecdoche ana yin amfani ne
da yankin wani
abu domin ya wakilci ɗaukacin abun.
Kalmar "wheels" (garegare) zata iya ɗaukar ma'anar abun hawa mai taya.
Kalmar "boots" (takalmi mai rufi)
zata iya nufin sojoji.
Kalmar "glasses" (gilashi) zata iya nufin tabarau
Difference between Synecdoche and Metonymy
Can you give me a hand carrying this book? (= can you help me carry this
This car cannot be moved even if many hands push it. (= this car cannot be moved even if many people push it)
Irony is when what is said is different from what it is meant. It is used when a certain outcome is revealed, but is
not what readers were expecting or hoping for.
Irony can be categorized into different types including verbal irony, dramatic irony and situational
irony. These three are the major types of Irony although there are other few
Irony yana faruwa ne idan abun da aka faɗa ya saɓawa
abun da ake nufi, ana amfani dashi ne idan sakamako ya bayyana, amma bashi bane abun da mai karatu yake tsammani. Za'a iya karkasa Irony zuwa
kashi daban daban kamar haka:
Waɗannan ukun sune suka fi shahara, duk
da yake dai akwai wasu 'yan kaɗan
1. Dramatic Irony
This is when audience understand or Know more
about what is going to happened than the performer. Or when words and actions deliver clear messages that the audience understand, but the
performer or character doesn't.
Dramatic Irony yana faruwa ne idan mutumin da ake yin abu domin shi ya san abun da zai faru fiye
da mai aiwatarwar ko kuma idan kalaman da wani ya faɗa sun isar da gamsashshen saƙon da masu sauraro suka fahimta, amma shi mai yin maganar bai
Example of dramatic irony
A terrorist detonated a bomb in market where nobody know (the audience know where
the terrorist detonated the bomb)
2. Situational Irony
This is when there is disparity of intention and result or if what happened is completely differ from what
Situational Irony yana faruwa ne idan akwai banbanci tsakanin abun da aka ƙudurta da kuma sakamakon da aka samu
Examples of Situational Irony
Protesters demand government to disbanded a police anti-crime patrol squad
because they harass and kill innocent people in the town, government agreed and disbanded the police squad but thereafter hoodlums took advantage
of absence of the anti-crime patrol squad to conduct their atrocities against innocent people, such as looting and raping.
A man built a house to reside if he retired, but he had an accident and died before his retirement.
3. Verbal Irony
This is contradiction between what someone said and what he means.
Verbal Irony na nufin cewa akwai banbanci tsakanin abun da mutum
ya faɗa da kuma abun da yake nufi
Examples of Verbal Irony
A man realized how ugly the woman is, then he said
"This woman is so beautiful".
A man went into restaurant to buy a fast food because he's so hungry, on his way to home his friend who's
eating in his house frontage asked him "Would you mind to let me eat one spoonful from the food you bought?" the man said "I can even give you the
whole food if you like"
Euphemism is a figure of speech in which a mild words or phrases is used to replaced unpleasant ones.
Euphemism wani karin magana ne da ake amfani dashi domin gudun kada a faɗi wata baƙar magana ko wata magana mai tada hankali.
Examples of Euphemism
Correctional service. = gidan gyaran hali (a maimakon kace gidan kurkuku)
Private parts. = al'aura (a maimakon ka kira sunan azzakari ko farji kai tsaye)
His father passed away
today. = his father is dead
Paradox is a statement that may look like absurd and contradictory although its true.
Karin magana na paradox wani karin magana ne wanda idan aka yi amfani dashi da farko zaka yi masa kallon shirme ne ko wanda yake ƙaryata
kanshi, amma idan ka tsaya kayi nazari zaka ga cewa akwai gaskiya tattare dashi.
Examples of paradox
The more you see, the less you understand.= Ganin abubuwa da yawa zai
sa fahimtar da kake yi musu ta ragu.
less is more.= abu kaɗan yafi yawa.
Mutane za su yi tunanin wannan maganar bata
da kan gado ko shirme ce. To amma ba haka bane, abun da ake nufi anan shine, abun da wahalar shi kaɗan ce, mutane da yawa sun fi son shi.
You can save money by spending it. zaka iya tara kuɗaɗe idan kana kashe su. (abun da ake nufi anan shine zaka iya tara kuɗi idan
ka sayi hannun jari ko wasu kadarori)
This is the beginning of the end.= wannan shine farkon ƙarke (wani zai iya tunanin ta
yaya abu na ƙarke zai kasance farko? to abun da ake nufi anan shine "wannan shine farkon abu na ƙarke da za'a aiwatar.
Ignorance is bliss. = rashin sanin abubuwa masu tada hankali zai sa ka samu salama.
Litotes just like irony is contradiction between what
someone said and what he means, however the contradictions in litotes occur by using negative statement to express affirmative statement,
that's means when you say someone isn't something, you mean that he is the opposite.
litotes shine samun saɓani tsakanin abun da mutum yace da kuma abun da yake nufi kaman dai a karin magana na irony. Amma a karin magana
na litotes, idan kace wani abu ba haka yake ba, to kana nufin dai dai yake da wani abun
Examples of Litotes
The country's economy isn't bad (= The country's economy is well established)
I don't hate Africans (= I like Africans)
He wasn't unfamiliar with the country's lifestyle (= He was well acquainted with the country's lifestyle)
Coronavirus isn't endemic in Africa (= Few people infected or die from coronavirus in Africa)
Mathematics isn't complex (= Mathematics is easy)
This is the use of irony to mock, convey contempt or for
humorous purposes. It mostly use to express opposite of what is true.
Sarcasm shine yin amfani da Irony domin yin zolaya ko yin rainin wayo ko kuma domin yin ba'a. Galibi ana yin amfani dashi ne domin
bayyana saɓanin abun da shine gaskiya
Examples of Sarcasm
When someone doesn't clean or wash his cloth and you say to him "very nice cloth, can you borrow me this cloth?"
When your child break your computer and you said "very good"
If you warned your female friend many times to quit wearing bikini in public because doing that attract rapists but she refused. One day she
was gang raped, then you asked her "can you borrow me your bikini to wear?"
If people disturb you with noise and you asked them to speak louder.
This is an indirect remark about somebody or something, usually
dropping some hints of something bad, insult or rude.
Innuendo shine yin tsokaci akan mutum a fakaice galibi ta hanyar saƙo wata munmunar magana, zagi ko iya shege
Example of Innuendo
If you disapproved your friend idea of making money online then you say: "Fatima is spending over ten hours online, she don't have time
for other things" (= you mean Fatima is wasting her time)
Yusuf asked Ibrahim: "Why are those large crowd running away from one soldier, why can't they confront him?" Ibrahim answered: "I know if you're
among them you can attempt to do that; but those people aren't insane to confront someone carrying machine gun with their bare hands"
(= indirectly means Yusuf is insane)
Antithesis is a figures of speech that express opposition
between someone or something.
Antithesis karin magana ne dake nuna akasi tsakanin abubuwa.
Example of Antithesis
Physical and facial attractiveness is an antithesis of what women find attractive in men.