Koyon Turanci Da Hausa


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A zaɓa maƙalar da ake san karantawa cikin drop down list dake sama
Noun
Noun wanda yake nufin sunan kowani abu ya karkasu har zuwa kashi huɗu kamar haka
  • Common nouns
  • Collective nouns
  • Proper nouns
  • Abstract nouns
    1. Common nouns:
wannan yana nufin shahararrun sunaye da muke anfani da su yau da kullum. Misali: Human, Man, Woman, Boy, Girl, Zebra, book, Market, da dai sauransu.
    2. Proper Nouns:
Wannan yana nufin laƙanin da ake kiran abu ko ince asalin sunan abu. Misali: Shamsuddeen, Maryam, Zazzau, Nokia X3.
    3. Collective Nouns:
Yana nufin jimillan sunayen abubuwa ko kuma ince sunayen abu fiye da ɗaya wanda aka daunƙule waje guda. Misali: crowd (taron mutane), flock (garke na kiwo), family (iyalai) Army (rundunar sojoji)
    4. Abstract Nouns:
Sune sunayen abubuwan da ba zamu iya gani ba ko taɓawa, misali: air, pain, hot, health.

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Pronoun
Pronoun yana nufin wakilin suna, wato kalmomi irin su 'i', me, you, he, da dai sauransu. Misali a maimakon kace 'Ibrahim carries Ibrahim's book' wato 'Ibrahim ya ɗauki littafin Ibrahim' sai kace: 'Ibrahim carries his book' wato Ibrahim Ya ɗauki Littafinsa.
    1. Personal pronouns
Wato Pronouns waɗanda suke nuni ga wani takamammen mutum ko wani abu, Personal pronouns sune kamar haka: I, me, you, she, her, him, it, we, us, you, they, them, we
    2. Possessive pronouns:
waɗannan suna nuna cewa mutum ya mallaki wani abu. Possessive pronouns sune kamar haka: my, mine, your, yours, hers, his, ours, our, theirs, its
    3. Demonstrative pronouns:
waɗannan sune wakilan sunan da suke nuni zuwa ga wani ko wani abu, misali: This, These, That da kuma those.

Abin lura: ana anfani da "this" da kuma "these" ne wajen yin nuni ga abin da yake kusa kusa. Sannan kuma ana anfani da "those" da kuma "that" wajen yin nuni ga abin da ke nesa. A taƙaice dai "this" yana nufin "wannan" misali: "This book" wato wannan littafin. Sannan kuma "that" yana nufin "wancan" misali: "That house" wato 'wancan gidan'.
'These' shine jam'in 'this' sannan kuma 'those' shine jam'in 'that'
    4. Interrogative Pronouns:
Waɗannan sune "Pronouns" da ake anfani dasu wajen yin Tambaya. Interrogative pronouns sune kamar haka: Who, what, which, whom da dai sauransu.

misalin interrogative pronouns a cikin Jimla

  • Who takes my pen everyday?


  • Which one do you have?
    5. Reflexive Pronouns:
waɗannan sune pronouns waɗanda suke ƙarewa da kodai haruffan 'selves' (idan kalmar tana 'plural) ko kuma 'self' (idan kalmar tana 'singular') reflexive pronouns sune kamar haka: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves da kuma themselves
    6. Relative pronouns
sune kamar haka: who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, da kuma that.

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Adjective
Adjectives yana nufin 'siffa' ko kuma 'siffatau' wato kalmomi irinsu 'ugly' (muni) 'beautiful' (kyawu), 'strong' (ƙarfaffa) da dai sauransu

Za'a iya anfani da 'adjective' wajen yin 'comparative' (wato domin nuna yanda abu yafi kau ko yafi muni. Misali 'strong' yana nufin 'mai ƙarfi', sannan kuma 'stronger' yana nufin 'ƙarfaffa'.

Galibi idan 'adjectives' yana da 'syllable' (gaɓoɓi) guda ɗaya zuwa biyu ne kawai, ana yin 'comparative' nashi ta hanyar sanya 'er' a ƙarshe, misali

AdjectivesComparative
greatgreater
fastfaster
strongstronger

Amma idan 'adjective' yana da gaɓoɓi fiye da biyu, akan yi anfani da kalmar 'more' ce domin yin 'comparative' misali:

AdjectivesComparative
intelligentmore intelligent
Za kuma a iya yin anfani da 'adjectives' domin yin 'superlatives' (wato mataki na uku da yake nuna mafi inganci ko mafi muni (misali 'strong' (ƙarfi), 'stronger' (Ƙarfaffa) da kuma 'strongest' 'mafi ƙarfi'

Galibi idan kalma tanada 'syllable' guda ɗaya zuwa biyu kawai, ana yin 'superlative' nashi ta hanyar sanya 'est' a ƙarshenta. Misali:

AdjectivesComparativeSuperlative
loudlouderloudest
coolcoolercoolest
smartsmartersmartest

Amma idan kalmar 'Adjective' tana da gaɓoɓi fiye da biyu, akan mayar da ita zuwa 'superlative' ne ta hanyar yin anfani da kalmar 'most' misali:

AdjectivesComparativeSuperlative
Intelligentmore intelligentmost intelligent

To amma waɗansu 'Adjective' ɗin yanayin yanda ake 'comparative' nasu da kuma 'superlative' nasu ya banbanta. Misali:

AdjectivesComparativeSuperlative
goodbetterbest
badworseworst
littlelessleast
muchmoremost
farfurtherfurthest



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Verb
'Verb' yana nufin kalmar aiki, verb ya karkasu zuwa kashi dabam dabam kamar haka

action verbs, linking verbs, main verbs, auxiliary verbs, transitive verbs, intransitive verbs da kuma 'phrasal verbs'

    Action verbs:
wannan yana nuna yin aiki ne

Misali:

  • he runs, He plays, they study
    2. Linking verbs
waɗannan suna haɗa 'subject' (mutumin da yayi aiki) da kuma 'adjective'

Misali

  • Zainab Yahya is beautiful

A wannan jimlar ta sama, 'linking verbs' shine 'is' wanda ya haɗa kalmar 'adjective' wato 'beautiful' da kuma 'subject' wato 'Zainab'

    3. Main verbs
sune verbs masu zaman kansu
    4. Auxiliary verbs:
Auxiliary verbs ko kuma 'helping verbs' (kamar yadda wasu suke kiransu), sune kamar haka: have, has, had, do, does, did, be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been, should, could, will, would, might, can, may, must, shall, ought (to)
    5. Transitive verbs
Transitive verbs yana buƙatan "direct object" (wanda aiki ya samu kai tsaye) domin ya bayarda ma'ana

Misalin transitive verb a cikin jimla

  • Ibrahim takes panadol for his headaches.

A wannan jimlar ta sama, 'takes' shine 'transitive verb' saboda 'Ibrahim takes' (wato Ibrahim ya amshi) ba zai bayarda wata ma'ana ba ba tare da wanda aikin amsar ya samu ba kai tsaye, wato 'panadol'

    6. Intransitive verbs
intransitive verbs baya buƙatar 'direct object' wato wanda aiki ya samu kafin ya bayarda wata ma'ana.

Misali:

  • Abubakar swims
wato Abubakar yayi iyo a cikin ruwa.

Kalmar aikin ta 'swims' (yin iyo a cikin ruwa) zata bawa mai karatu cikakken ma'ana ba tare da 'direct object' ba (wato wanda aikin yin iyo a cikin ruwan ya sama)

    6. Phrasal verbs
ana samad da 'phrasal verbs' ne ta hanyar yin anfani da 'verb' da kuma 'preposition'. Misali: "look" (verb) da kuma "up" "preposition" dan haka 'verb' + 'preposition' = 'phrasal verb' (wato 'look up'

Ƙarin Misalai: call up, find out, hand in, make up, put off, turn on, write up.

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Adverb
Adverb kalmace wacce take canza 'verb' (kalmar aiki), Adjectives ko kuma canza wani 'adverb' ɗin.

Misali

  • The teacher carefully graded the homework.

A wannan jimlar ta sama 'carefully' shine 'adverb' wanda ya canza kalmar aiki (verb) wato 'grade'

  • Shehu was extremely enthusiastic about doing his homework

A wannan jimlar ta sama 'extremely' shine 'adverb' wanda ya canza kalmar 'adjective' wato 'enthusiastic'

  • Usman ran out the classroom very quickly.

A wannan jimlar 'very' shine adverb wanda ya canza 'adverb' wato 'quickly'

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Preposition
Prepositions waɗansu mahaɗin kalmomi ne waɗanda suke haɗa 'noun' ko 'pronoun' da wata kalmar a cikin jimla.

wasu daga cikin prepositons sune kamar haka:

About, before, down, into, through, above, behind, during, like, to, across, below, except, of, toward, after, beneath, for, off, under, among, beside, from, on, up, around, between, over, with, at, by, instead of, since, without



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Conjunction
Conjunction yana nufin mahaɗin kalma, wato kalma irin su, and, da kuma but.

Misali:

The man is riding a horse, but his son is driving a car

it was festival today, and some people going to school.

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Interjection
Interjection Yana nufin Kalmar motsin rai, (ko idan mutum yaga abin ban mamaki) misali: hurrah! oh! Hi!

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Aika Zuwa

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