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1. Simile: Is a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind indirectly using "as" or "like"

Simile wani karin magana ne da ake anfani dashi domin kamanta wani abu da wani abun daban wanda ba irin su ɗaya ba ta hanyar yin amfani da "as" ko "like" Misali:

Hasan is brave as a lion.= Hasan jarumi ne.

Police and druggist fought like cats and dogs.= 'Yan sanda da 'yan shaye shaye suna wasan ɓuya.

He sleep like a dog.= yana yin barci da rana maimakon yin bacci da dare.

My love for you is as deep as the ocean.= Ina son ki har zuci.

2. Metaphor: This is like simile, the difference is direct comparison between metaphor and simile is that simile uses the words "like" or "as" to show comparison but metaphor only states the comparison without using "like" or "as" e.g.

Metaphor shima kaman simile yake, banbancin kawai dake tsakanin metaphor da simile shine; smile shi yana nuna kamanceceniya ce kai tsaye ta hanyar anfani da "like" ko "as". Amma shi metaphor kawai yana nuna kamanceceniya ne ba tare da yin anfani da "like" ko "as" ba. Misali:

I'm drowning in a sea of grief.= baƙin ciki na ya ƙara yawaita.

Musa broke my heart.= Musa ya ɓata min rai.

Time is a thief.= lokaci na gudu kuma kwanakin mu suna ƙarewa.

His words cut deeper than a knife.= maganar shi tana baƙanta min rai.

3. Personification: This is when a writer attribute human characteristics to something that isn't human e.g.

Personification shine siffanta ɗabi'un mutum da wani abu wanda ba mutum ba, misali:

Since the murder of the innocent people in Jos, the earth has been crying for vengeance.= tun bayan da aka kashe mutane da basu san hawa ba basu san sauka ba a Jos, jama'a suke ta ƙorafin a ɗauki fansa.

The tree wet after rain danced on it.= bishiyar ta jiƙe bayan ruwan sama ya sauka a kanta.

4. Hyperbole: Hyperbole is a figure of speech that uses extreme exaggeration to show emphasis. Example.

Hyperbole wani nau'in karin magana ne da ake yawan kurantawa domin ƙarfafa magana. Misali:

The woman that entered the office was so fat the whole office shook to its foundation.= matar data shigo ofis ɗin tana da ƙibar da ban taɓa ganin mai ƙiba kamanta ba.

Words aren't sufficient for me to adequately express my gratitude to you over what you have done.= ban san irin godiyar da zanyi maka ba saboda abin daka yi min.

I've told you to go to school a million times.= na daɗe ina ta nanatawa cewa kaje makaranta.

She's so hungry and she could eat elephant. tana matuƙan jin yunwa.

If i failed to mary Maryam; i will die.= idan har ban samu nasarar auran Maryam ba to zan shiga cikin damuwa.

5. Metonymy: Metonymy is a figure of speech that replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else which is closely associated. E.g.

Metonymy wani karin magana ne da ake anfani dashi gurin maye gurbin sunan wani abu da wani abun daban da suke da kusanci. Misali:

After the protests, may be Washington will change its decision.= bayan zanga zangar, gwamnatin Amurka mai yiwuwa zata iya sauya ra'ayinta.

Anan kalmar "Washington" tana nufin gwamnatin Amurka tunda "Washington" shine babban birnin Amurka.

The terrorist was just released from the big house.= ba'a jima da sakin ɗan ta'addan daga gidan kaso ba.

Kalmar "big house" anan tana nufin gidan kaso tunda nan ne gurin da ake kai 'yan ta'adda.

The pen is mightier than the sword.= yarjejeniyar sulhu a rubuce tafi gwabza yaƙi.

Can you give me a hand carrying this book?= ko zaka iya taimaka min na ɗauki wannan akwatin?

6. Synecdoche: In this figure of speech a part or something is taken to represent the whole of it. This is like metonymy only that here the part that is meant to represent the whole is an inseparable aspect of it, whereas in metonymy, the part representing the whole can be separated from it. Actually, some synecdoche are form of metonymy.

Synecdoche wani karin magana ne da ake anfani dashi domin ɗauko wani yanki na magana domin wakiltar sauran yankin maganar. Synecdoche yana aiki ne kamar metonym banbanci su kawai shine shi synecdoche baza a iya raba shi da wannan yankin da aka ciro shi daga ciki ba, amma shi metonymy za'a iya raba shi da sauran yankin da yake wakilta. Alal haƙiƙa, wasu daga cikin karin magana na synecdoche za'a iya kiran su da metonymy. Misali

Kalmar "wheels" (garegare) zata iya ɗaukar ma'anar abun hawa mai taya.

Kalmar "boots" (takalmi mai rufi) zata iya nufin sojoji.

Kalmar "glasses" (gilashi) zata iya nufin tabarau

7. Irony: This is when what is said is different from what it is meant. It is used when a certain outcome is revealed, but is not what readers were expecting or hoping for.

Idan abun da aka faɗa ya saɓawa abun da ake nufi, to wannan jimlar itace karin magana na "IRONY" Ana anfani dashi idan sakamakon abun da aka samu bashi bane abun da ake so ko ake tsammani.

8. Euphemism: is a figure of speech expressing in a polite and soothing manner a statement that would have been harsh or unpleasant to hear.

Euphemism wani karin magana ne da ake anfani dashi domin gudun kada a faɗi wata baƙar magana ko wata magana mai tada hankali. Misali

Maimuna is a girl of easy virtue. (Maimuna yarinya ce mai sauƙin kai) to anan a fakaice ana nufin Maimuna tana da saurin amincewa ayi lalata da ita.

Nuhu's daughter has been put in a family way.= An yiwa 'yar Nuhu ciki.

His father passed away today.= babanshi ya mutu yau.

9. Paradox: Paradox is a statement that looks absurd and contradictory on the surface, but yet can be true and make sense. Paradoxes are often contrary to what is commonly believed.

Karin magana na paradox wani karin magana ne wanda idan aka yi anfani dashi da farko zaka yi masa kallon shirme ne ko wanda yake ƙaryata kanshi, amma idan ka tsaya kayi nazari zaka ga cewa akwai gaskiya tattare dashi. Galibi karin magana na paradox ya saɓa da abun da yawancin mutane suka yi imani dashi. Misali:

The more you see, the less you understand.= Ganin abubuwa da yawa zai sa fahimtar da kake yi musu ta ragu.

less is more.= abu kaɗan yafi yawa.

Mutane za su yi tunanin wannan maganar bata da kan gado ko shirme ce. To amma ba haka bane, abun da ake nufi anan shine, abun da wahalar shi kaɗan ce, mutane da yawa sun fi son shi.

You can save money by spending it. zaka iya tara kuɗaɗe idan kana kashe su. (abun da ake nufi anan shine zaka iya tara kuɗi idan ka sayi hannun jari ko wasu kadarori)

This is the beginning of the end.= wannan shine farkon ƙarke (wani zai iya tunanin ta yaya abu na ƙarke zai kasance farko? to abun da ake nufi anan shine "wannan shine farkon abu na ƙarke da za'a aiwatar.

Aika Zuwa

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